lecture9-15reduced - ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL[ED[ED Suburban...

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Unformatted text preview: ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] Suburban Constellations Sub ENVS 2200 urban Founda.ons of Urban Con and Regional Environments stella tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the the multiple multiple manifestations manifestations of of analyze suburbanization and suburbanism. They are suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of of suburbanization suburbanization trends trends in in the the Overviews Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Suburban Constellations. Constellations. complete ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] ROGER Roger Keil Lecture 9 – November 20, 2015 •  hEp://www.buzzfeed.com/reggieugwu/ drakes-­‐new-­‐accent#.jq5W43vGX Canada: 80 percent urbanized Canadian Urbanization •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Canada: Big but urbanized 80 percent or 25 million Canadians in cities Dominant cities in some provinces 27 urban agglos of more than 100,000 Home to 20 million Canadians Urban system spread out But: noticeable clusters Provinces and Municipalities •  Federal and provincial governments have constitutional powers, municipalities don’t •  Municipalities are creatures of provinces •  But: historically, provinces had to wrest power from cities Two kinds of ci.es in Canada •  globalized, successful, growing, dynamic city regions (CalgaryEdmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver) •  a large number of declining towns – mostly in the old industrial and resource economy belts of the East and the North (Bourne, 2004; Simmons and Bourne, 2003) •  But: Ft McMurray Global ci.es •  especially true for the three Canadian “global cities”– Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver •  they articulate the country’s economy, culture and populations into the global flows and scales that constitute the conditions of urban life today. •  These three urban regions account for the majority of the country’s economic activity, cultural shifts, and demographic change. It is here where urban Canada is redefined most visibly as the face of an urban nation. An urban Canada •  East/West •  North/South What is unique about Canada’s urban system? •  Ci.es without hinterland •  Not a real system •  Growing urbaniza.on but big ci.es different from the rest •  Toronto is an abnormality •  Toronto can only survive by being global •  Significant differences in city-­‐regionalism across the country Toronto •  2.7 million in a city region of 6.5 million •  Canada’s global city •  Financial centre and most multicultural city in the world Toronto •  40 percent of all immigrants to Canada seEle in Toronto; •  50 percent of all inhabitants of the city are immigrants; •  ‘visible minori,es’ -­‐-­‐ make up 50 percent of total Toronto popula.on. Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto •  •  •  •  Two-­‐.er government between 1954 and 1997 “The city that works” Originally: financing suburbaniza.on Later: draining the city centre Metro Toronto Amalgamation 1996: Golden Report 1997: Amalgamation 1998: New City of Toronto n  n  n  n  Winnipeg 1972 Halifax 1996 Ottawa, Sudbury, Hamilton, 2000 Between 1996 and 1999, the Tory government had reduced the number of municipalities in Ontario by 229 or 28 percent. “Toronto suffers by its status as a subsidiary to the province. This is not simply a Toronto argument, made by Torontonians about Toronto – it has been made equally about Montreal, Vancouver, and other cities in Canada.” (Alan Broadbent: In Gertler, 2000: 34) Downloading and Devolution n  Social services and school funding reversal shows the problem with amalgamation: n  Devolution of social service cost and responsibilities a revanchist act of exurban politicians against the inner city; n  no benefits to citizens attached to this type of devolution. Consequences of Amalgamation n  Amalgamation cost more than it saved n  The transition period involved extraordinary confusion n  User fees were increased n  Harmonization is very expensive and difficult to achieve n  Management-labour relations unsettled Toronto: the compe--ve city •  The entrepreneurial city •  The city of difference •  The revanchist city FIVE POLITICAL PERIODS IN TORONTO, 1972-­‐2015 •  •  •  •  •  •  The reformist period (1972-­‐1995) The an,-­‐sta,st neoliberal period (1995-­‐2003) The neoreformist period (2003-­‐ 2010) Populist intermezzo (2010-­‐2014) Eli,st resurgence (2014-­‐) 2010-­‐2014 •  Hiberna.on of the urban na.on? •  An age of extremes From “Urban Na.on” to “Ford Na.on” The region: Greater Golden Horseshoe The Toronto Bioregion Greater Golden Horseshoe Region The Greenbelt Urban Growth Centres ...
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