feb 26 - Suburban Constellations ROGER KEIL[ED Sub ENVS...

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Unformatted text preview: Suburban Constellations ROGER KEIL [ED.] Sub ENVS 2200 urban Foundations of UrbanCon and Regional Environments stella tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the multiple manifestations of suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of suburbanization trends in the Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Constellations. ROGER KEIL [ED.] Roger Keil Lecture 17 – February 26, 2016 Urban Political Ecology (Heynen) •  urban metabolism as a dynamic process •  new sociospatial formations •  Intertwinings of materials •  collaborative enmeshing of social •  explicitly created through human labor and non-human processes simultaneously. Angelo & Wachsmuth | UPE Urban Political Ecology •  If more than half of the world is now urban, hopes for its future must rest on the shoulders of the green, sustainable city? •  The idea of the green city is nothing new •  Contemporary city marks significant change: where to escape to? Methodological cityism? •  “A poli(cal ecology of urbaniza(on rather than a poli(cal ecology of ci(es.” •  “A global metabolic socio-­‐environmental Process” Max Ajl | Hypertrophic city Hydrocephalic Megacity Or the city of fields? The ques(on of energy The ques(on of food The new ‘logistics’ of the global cities region (Tim Luke, 2003) “new built environments tied to several complex layers of technological systems whose logistical grids are knit into other networks for the production, consumption, circulation, and accumulation of commodities. Along with sewer, water and street systems, cities are embedded in electricity, coal, natural gas, petroleum, and metals markets in addition to timber, livestock, fish, crop, and land markets. All of these links are needed simply to supply food, water, energy, products, and services to their residents” (2003: 12) And scale? “At which scale(s) should (un)sustainability be assessed? … Which are the main environmental conflicts? At which geographical scale schould they be comprehended?” (MarKnez-­‐ Alier, 2003: 50) •  necessary tension of the scale of ecological governance and actual landscapes: bioregion, metropolitan area, local neighbourhood? •  decentralized forms of urban ecological prac(ces: a kaleidoscopic, chao(c, anarchic – i.e. ecological – solu(on to the challenge of environmental jus(ce in global ci(es such as Toronto? •  Where and how – if at all – are democracy and ecology interconnected? •  how do they intersect with urbanism? •  a forever emerging process? Toronto as an urbanized landscape •  Three features: •  Lake and waterfronts •  Hills (ORM; escarpment) •  Plains (rivers, urbanized lowlands) Growth and nature •  All these landscape features are under some kind of protec(on and regula(on •  Emerging coherence of measures (greenbelt) •  Dependency on a contested form of development poli(cs •  Urban ecological moderniza(on Making Nature Compe::ve in Toronto 1990s in Toronto: two dis(nct regimes of urban ecological moderniza(on 1.  Out of 1980s: ecosystem approach 2.  Neoliberalized ecological moderniza(on since early 1990s An opposi(onal force: Urban environmental poli(cs •  Toronto Environmental Alliance •  Task Force to Bring Back the Don •  Progressive city councilors and provincial representa(ves Amalgama(on 1997 •  ecomodernist and radical ecological discourses ac(ve at the (me of amalgama(on •  one side spoke of economic efficiency and growing out of the ecological crisis through more consolidated economies of scale; •  the other side insisted on the value and virtue of the local communi(es and ecological topologies of the diverse and globalized city Acer amalgama(on •  expecta(on among environmental ac(vists: amalgama(on would have nega(ve effects •  Suburbaniza(on of local poli(cs •  Environment off the agenda? •  Ecology only valued when good for business (Fowler and Hartmann) But… •  Toronto Transi(on Team (TTT), paid agen(on to the “many and difficult environmental issues facing the new city” (Fowler and Hartmann, 2002: 158). •  the establishment of an Environmental Task Force (ETF); March 1998. in order to govern both the City with its complex socio-­‐ ecological structures and dynamics and the wildly unruly City Council, Mayor Lastman had to compromise and delegate The poli(cs of compromise Roll-­‐out neoliberalism vs./with roll-­‐out environmentalism •  Environmental Task Force -­‐-­‐> Environmental Plan •  Jack Layton’s poli(cs of scale: taking the local environment to the na(onal level •  Rolling environmentalism out in the bureaucracy •  Compe((ve, entrepreneurial and revanchist city creates niches for environmental poli(cs Urban environmental hegemony •  Environmental issues cut across ideological lines •  Growth gets (ed to ecology Amalgama(ng urban nature •  Amalgama(on had posi(ve effects in terms of the urban environmental discourse (Will it lead to beger sustainability performance?) •  Not necessarily: efficiency gains of new poli(cal structure also extend to ecology •  The expanded commigee structure of the new council made it possible for environmental issues to immediately receive agen(on •  City staff of 50,000 carry the torch: •  a bulwark of social and environmental progressivism •  Resilience of the local state Rerou(ng material streams •  Debate on water and sewage •  Waste streams (landfill, diversion, incinera(on, ???) •  Pes(cide By-­‐law (strategic victory!) •  Smog policies: TAF •  Road salt: modest gains •  Deep Lake Water Cooling ...
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  • Winter '12
  • StefanKipfer
  • Suburb, Urban decay, roger keil, urban political ecology

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