feb 12 - Suburban Constellations ROGER KEIL[ED Sub urban...

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Unformatted text preview: Suburban Constellations ROGER KEIL [ED.] Sub urban ENVS 2200 FOUNDATIONS OF URBAN Con AND stella REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTS tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the multiple manifestations of suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of suburbanization trends in the Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Constellations. Roger Keil Lecture 16 – February 12, 2016 ROGER KEIL [ED.] ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE/RACISM ROBERT BULLARD EJ IN CANADA REASSERTING NATURE IN THE CITY Henri Lefebvre: “When urbanization of society takes place, and when the city consequently absorbs the countryside, there is simultaneously a ruralization of the city”. THE NATURE OF URBANIZATION Urban natures are largely produced natures Changes in urban nature are related to larger urban restructuring processes Fordism -------> Post-Fordism Globalization WHAT IS NEW NOW? Nature has become central to how urban spatial regulation and urban political regimes are constituted Urban growth and development occurs increasingly through and not against nature New articulation of urban and ‘natural’ space WHERE IS NATURE IN CITIES? Outside: the peripheral suburbs Inside: nature is everywhere - parks, electricity, bodies, pets, etc. Cities grew in a process of ‘destructive creation’ HISTORIES OF URBAN NATURES Building cities means building ‘thresholds’ Transitory zones Liminal spaces Spaces in between CONSTANT REDEFINITION OF Inside and outside Centrality and periphery Town and countryside WILLIAM CRONON, NATURE’S METROPOLIS CRONON’S CHICAGO: DARK BUT AWESOME “So attractive was the city that it seemed at times to radiate an energy that could only be superhuman. Called forth by the massed resources of western nature, the city -- at least in literary descriptions -- became almost a force of nature itself. Mere human beings might try to manipulate or control its energy, but never to create it. This most human of places seemed to express a power that belonged less to people than to the god whose name was Nature” (p.13) DAVID HARVEY “There is nothing unnatural about New York city.” MATTHEW GANDY, CONCRETE AND CLAY SWYNGEDOUW | KAIKA NIK HEYNEN URBAN POLITICAL ECOLOGY (HEYNEN) Urban metabolism as a dynamic process New sociospatial formations Intertwinings of materials Urban nature created through human labor and non-human processes simultaneously THE FORDIST CITY The total externalization of nature The conditions of life segregated from cities Natural base of fordist city is fossilist The global extension of the footprint MIKE DAVIS, ECOLOGIES OF FEAR DAVIS’ LOS ANGELES Fordist city: automobile city Fordist city: private city Fordist city: channelized nature (LA River) A new environmental crisis: floods, smog Urban sprawl THE POST-FORDIST CITY Nature comes back in but in a ‘staged’ way Nature reborn, reestablished, recreated as an immanent element of the new urban order Urban ecological modernization From suburbs to edge cities BACK TO ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystems as the fundamental unit of life Question: what constitutes an urban ecosystem? Where are the boundaries? Who produces it? What ‘laws’ govern its existence? IDEAS IN ECOLOGY Ecosystem succession Landscapes and patches Hierarchies and niches Energy as common currency Entropy or maximum disorder Few species or large biodiversity? (city country) Urban ecology? ANGELO & WACHSMUTH | UPE URBAN POLITICAL ECOLOGY If more than half of the world is now urban, hopes for its future must rest on the shoulders of the green, sustainable city? The idea of the green city is nothing new Contemporary city marks significant change: where to escape to? METHODOLOGICAL CITYISM? “A political ecology of urbanization rather than a political ecology of cities.” “A global metabolic socio-environmental Process” TRANSNATIONAL URBAN POLITICAL ECOLOGY URBAN POLITICAL ECOLOGY Metabolic relationships Societal relationships with nature In focus: food, water, energy flows, waste – dependence of global ecologies and political economies that regulate and support them (and their crises) FROM CONNECTIVITY TO VULNERABILITY Logistical flows, material flows (Luke) Catastrophes (Katrina) Resilience vulnerability neoliberalization ...
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  • Winter '12
  • StefanKipfer
  • Suburb, roger keil, urban political ecology

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