jan 22 - Suburban Constellations ROGER KEIL[ED Sub ENVS...

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Unformatted text preview: Suburban Constellations ROGER KEIL [ED.] Sub ENVS 2200 urban Foundations of UrbanCon and Regional Environments stella tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the multiple manifestations of suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of suburbanization trends in the Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Constellations. ROGER KEIL [ED.] Roger Keil Lecture 13 – January 22, 2016 Constitutive moments of enclosure: •  Transformation of property and land rights regimes •  Redistribution of resources •  Restructuring spatial divisions of labor and modes of social reproduction •  State intervention and political centralization •  Urban fabric The metropolitan century •  More than 50 percent urban globally •  80 percent of Canadians in cities •  Most Canadians live in large urban areas Global (sub)urbanization •  Urban revolution (Lefebvre; Brugmann) •  Urbanization is at the core of the growth and crisis of the global economy today (Harvey) •  David Harvey: “The planet as building site collides with the ‘planet of slums’” •  Urbanization is the defining characteristic of our shared experience as humans on this planet Global (sub)urbanization •  Most of the world now urbanized, but really: suburbanized •  Break in history of urbanization: not more cities like Manchester or Chicago, or even like New York or Paris, (i.e. more urban density linked to classical forms of industrialization), the new modes of urbanization are largely suburban (even in China!). The global suburb •  Suburbs the arena of new types of assemblages of the global. •  Or in other words… •  Suburban everyday life as a global assemblage. … a sub/urban century? •  suburbanization, not urbanization, is the process that defines the building of human settlements in the current period •  suburbanization is not what it used to be: a simple concentric extension of existing urban morphologies Conundrums of “complete urbanization” •  an experience common to humans around the world •  a statistical and conceptual conundrum: criteria such as built form/commute-mode, domesticity, and social status, automobility (Atlas of Suburbanisms) but difficult to come up with sliding scales, or even polarities of city vs. suburb relationships •  a thankless task to come up with definitive quantitative or even qualitative measures by which to differentiate the two Further conundrums… •  majority of city dwellers don’t live in anything that resembles what observers one hundred or even fifty years ago would have recognized as urban •  they inhabit, work and play in suburban areas that are rapidly evolving into complex metropolitan regions of variable density, high socio-demographic diversity and unequal mobility In the South… •  the morphologies, composition and even concepts of suburban development abound: •  up to two thirds of regional populations live in suburban areas (McGee 2013), •  “a patchwork of valorized and devalorized spaces that constitute a volatile frontier of accumulation, capitalist expansion, gentrification, and displacement” (Roy, 2015). •  “peri-urban areas” are often high density and include a wide and dynamic variety of forms and land uses (Gururani 2013; Mabin, 2013). Kaleidoscopic global suburban landscape •  Great multiplicity in the rapidly suburbanizing world. •  But also much blurring and bleeding among and between the different world regions. •  In a post-colonial, post-suburban world, the forms, functions, relations, etc. of one suburban tradition get easily merged, refracted and fully displaced in and by others elsewhere, near or far. Kaleidoscopic suburbanization •  extended urbanization in highly urbanized but demographically stagnating industrialized regions; •  primary urbanization that takes on suburban forms in high tech or resource areas (oil-burbs, etc.); •  gated and otherwise access-restricted enclaves of privilege; •  slums of the displaced &squatter settlements of the hopeful; •  sprawling single-family home subdivisions and hyper-dense tower neighbourhoods; •  new developments pushing into ecologically sensitive areas •  existing, though sometimes abandoned and undervalued, “inner suburbs” that await renewal and regeneration; •  mostly residential districts of variable density •  industrial &commercial where service infrastructures and nondesirable land uses are concentrated. Suburban variations •  bland and clear cut segregation(s) in land use, socio-economic make-up & socionatural relationships historically associated with suburban form &life, are beginning to break down into more complex variations. •  so-called “in-between” cities have emerged where the urban and the suburban cannot easily be distinguished. a historically evolving human geography •  predominant human habitat is less urban than most observers of the urban century assume and much less rural than where people lived one hundred years ago •  a post-suburban planet Some forms of suburbanization Euroburbs Suburbanization •  Suburbanization defined as the combination of an increase in non-central city population and economic activity, as well as urban spatial expansion. ...
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