BME_265_2016_Homework 2 (2)

BME_265_2016_Homework 2 (2) - BME 265Homework 2 due Amanda...

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BME 265—Homework 2 due Feb 25, 2016 Amanda Montoya C11956996 Chapter 9 1. The four cranial nerves that supply fibers to the autonomic nervous system are: The Vagus nerve (Cranial nerve X): The origin of its preganglionic fibers is at the Medulla Oblongata. The location of terminal ganglia is in or near the organ. Finally, the effector organs are Heart, Lungs, Gastrointestinal Tract, Liver and Pancreas. The Oculomotor nerve (Cranial nerve III): The origin of its preganglionic fibers is at the Midbrain. The location of terminal ganglia is in ciliary ganglion. Finally, the effector organ is the eye (Smooth muscle in iris and ciliary body). The Facial Nerve (Cranial nerve VII): The origin of its preganglionic fibers is at the Pons. The location of terminal ganglia is at the Pterygopalatine and submandibular ganglia. Finally, the effector organs is are Lacrimal, Mucous and Salivary glands. The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Cranial Nerve IX): The origin of its preganglionic fibers is at the Medulla Oblongata. The location of terminal ganglia is at the Otic ganglion. Finally, the effector organs is the Parotid gland. 2. The most common neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (Ach). All presynaptic neurons use Ach as a neurotransmitter. Ach is also released by some sympathetic postsynaptic neurons and all postsynaptic neurons. The SNS uses NE as its principle postsynaptic chemical messenger. Acetylcholine (Ach): In the autonomic nervous system, acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter in the preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. Ach is also the neurotransmitter at the adrenal medulla and serves as the neurotransmitter at all the parasympathetic innervated organs. Norepinephrine (NE): NE is secreted by nearly all sympathetic postganglionic neurons. Usually called adrenergic fibers. The receptors for NE are called adrenergic receptors Chapter 10 3. The five types of cutaneous receptors are: Free nerve endings: Their structure consists of unmyelinated dendrites of sensory neurons. They provide sensation for light touch, hot, cold and pain. They are located around hair follicles throughout skin.
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Merkel’s discs: Their structure consists of expanded dendritic endings. They provide sensation for sustained touch and pressure. They are located at the base of the epidermis which is known as Stratum Basale.
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