History of Graphic Design Notes - *Moneybasedeconomy SteamPr

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Industrial Revolution Mid 1700s - Late 1800s • Machines and large scale production replaced hand tools                             • Went from agricultural to manufacturing base• Growth of population  centers• Industry growth                                                                                    * Money based economy 1824 Photographic Metal Engraving1852 Halftone Screen1868 Automated  Steam Press for Lithography 1893 Successful Color Process Printing1906  Offset Printing Photographic Metal Engraving Use of photographic techniques to expose an image on a light sensitive  metal surface, where acids are used to etch the final image. Halftone Screen Pattern of dots of varying sizes used to simulate and print continuos tone.      Automated Steam Press for Lithography Advancement in stone lithography allowed artists to work directly on stone  for multiple reproduction of large scale posters. Stone Lithography: Drawing image on stone using greasy black  lithographic pencil. Plates are made for each color. 1893 Successful Color Process Printing                                                             1906 Offset Printing Art Nouveau (1890s - Early 1900s) • Spurred by the attitude associated with the Industrial Revolution. •  Characterized by sensual decorative motifs. Names associated with its development: Jules Chere t: Father of modern poster.
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Brought art out of galleries and into the streets and homes of the working  class. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: Primarily painter and printer maker. Produced  posters, music and book jacket designs. Aubrey Beardsley: Known for decadent book illustration characterized by  black line drawings. Figure vs. Ground. Alphonse Mucha: Designed furniture, carpets, jewelry, and posters for  famous actress Sarah Bernhardt. International movement where all functional arts grew during this time  influencing architecture, furniture, product design fashion and graphics. Louis Tiffany: Best known in the Art Nouveau movement for his work in  stained glass. Charles Rennie Mackintosh: Work in furniture, cutlery, interior as well as  graphic designs. Maxfield Parrish: Illustrator creating book, magazine and advertising  illustrations.
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