Ch 21 part 2 line of defense

Ch 21 part 2 line of defense - 3 lines of defense against...

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3 lines of defense against pathogen Pathogen: environmental agent causing disease Infectious organism, toxic chemical, radiation 1 st line = skin & mucous membranes External barriers, most pathogens kept out 2 nd line if pathogen gets in WBC, macrophages, antimicrobial proteins, immune surveillance, inflammation, fever From birth (aka innate immunity) Protect from wide range pathogens Even if NEVER exposed to it before 3 rd line = specific immunity Prior exposure Kills pathogens with proteins, cells against that EXACT pathogen Makes memory: if pathogen returns, kill it before illness Pathogens Exact shape, prior exposure
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1 st Line external barriers Skin: form & function MANY layers of epithelial cells, close, tight junctions Keratin = tough protein, few pathogen pass Dry, few nutrients: most bacteria can’t grow Exfoliate: lose skin cells, pathogen Acid Mantle: lactic acid from sweat Inhibits bacterial growth Protective proteins Sweat dermicin Skin cells, neutrophils, macrophages defensins, cathecidins: peptides make holes in bacteria, virus, fungi
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Mucosa: digest, resp, urinary, repro Mucus sticky, grabs microbes Resp cilia throat Digestive mucus, saliva throat, stomach acid Urine flushes urinary tract Lysozyme = enzyme dissolves bacterial cell walls mucus, tears, saliva Areolar CT w/ Hyaluronic acid (lamina propria) Viscous, so microbes can’t move well Hyaluronidase enzyme in snake venom, bacterial toxins, parasitic protozoans Areolar CT
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WBC, Macrophages both 2 nd & 3 rd lines Neutrophils wander CT, killing bacteria Phagocytosis and digestion, simple Respiratory burst kamakazee Lysosomes degranulate @ cell surface Enzymes in tissue fluid make 3 toxic chemicals Superoxide by itself Hydrogen peroxide Superoxide + H+ Hypochlorite, as in bleach Killing zone extends far from cell Kills lots more bacteria Kills neutrophil, too (kamakazee) CT damage can become rheumatoid arthritis Lilac Small granules
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Eosinophils Mucous membranes Esp w/ allergy, inflammation, parasitic infection Kill tape & round worms with superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, neurotoxin protein Activate basophils, mast cells Phagocytize, degrade antigen-antibody complexes Enzymes degrade histamine, limit inflammation causing tissue damage Red granules
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