AnimalPPT - KINGDO M ANIMALI A KINGDOM ANIMALIA...

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KINGDO M ANIMALI A
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KINGDOM ANIMALIA Characterized by: Multicellular body of different types of eukaryotic cells Heterotrophs – get food from environment Movement through shortening of contractile fibers Reproduction Asexual: Hydra – budding Starfish / Planarians – regeneration Sponges – gemmules Sexual Gametic sexual reproduction Ovaries – eggs Testes - sperm Mitotic division
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CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION Symmetry Radial – can be divided into two smaller halves by any plane through longitudinal axis of body Bilateral – can be divided into two smaller halves by only one plane (midsaggital plane) through longitudinal axis of body
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CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION Level of Organization Tissue Embryonic Tissues/Germ Layers Ectoderm Endoderm Organ Embryonic Tissues/Germ Layers Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Organ System Embryonic Tissues/Germ Layers Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Tissue Tissue Organ/Organ System
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CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION Body Plan Sac-like Single opening (mouth/anus) into gastrovascular cavity Tube-within-a-tube Mouth at one end of tubelike digestive tract Anus at the other end of tubelike digestive tract
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CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION Body Cavity Tube-within-a-tube: fluid filled space between digestive tract/body wall called coelom Completely lined with mesoderm – true coelom Not completely lined with mesoderm – false coelom No coelom False coelom True coelom
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CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION Fate of Blastopore First opening formed in embryo Protostomes – forms mouth Dueterostomes – becomes anus Segmentation Serial repetition of body parts along longitudinal axis Segments give rise to specialized organs
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INVERTEBRA TES
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PHYLUM PORIFER A S PONGES
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PHYLUM PORIFERA - SPONGES Simple and primative No nerves/muscles Individuals cells sense surroundings and react Cellular-Tissue level of organization Sac-like body plan One opening Classified by spicules (skeletal elements) Chalk Sponges – calcium carbonate Glass Sponges – silica Fibrous – proteins Reproduction Asexual – gemmules Sexual – hermaphroditic
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PHYLUM PORIFERA - SPONGES Feeding Choanocytes (collar cells) Flagella – maintain water flow Food particles filtered through body Nutrients distributed by diffusion Aided by ameobocytes Life Stages Radially symmetrical/asymmetrical adults Attached to rocks/corals/etc. Larvae ciliated and motile Granita spp.
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PHYLUM CNIDARI A JELLYFISH, ANEMONES, CORALS, HYDROIDS
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PHYLUM CNIDARIA JELLYFISH, ANEMONES, CORALS, HYDROIDS Sac-like bodyplan Singular opening into gastrovascular cavity Radially symmetrical Endoderm/ectoderm tissue organization Stinging cells (cnidocytes) Nematocysts for defense/catch prey Motility Contraction of myofibrils, controlled by nerve
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