Animaldefense (1) - The Immune System in Animals YOUR BODY...

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The Immune System in Animals
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YOUR BODY IS ATTACKED BY FOREIGN MOLECULES ALL THE TIME. THESE MOLECULES CAN BE TOXINS (SUCH AS POISONS) OR DISEASE CAUSING AGENTS SUCH AS: 1. BACTERIA 2. FUNGI 3. VIRUSES THERE ARE 3 LINES OF DEFENSE THAT YOUR BODY HAS: 1. PHYSICAL BARRIERS 2. LEUKOCYTES 3. LYMPHOCYTES
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Eyes Blinking wipes tears across the eye. Tears contain the anti-bacterial enzyme lysozyme. Nose The nasal passages are lined with mucus secretions and hairs that trap pathogens. Ears Hairs and ear wax trap pathogens in the passageway of the external ear. Respiratory tract The trachea are lined with ciliated cells and mucus-secreting cells that keep pathogens out of the lungs. Digestive tract Pathogens are trapped in saliva and mucus, then swallowed. Most are destroyed by the low pH of the stomach. PHYSICAL BARRIERS
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Innate Immunity Most people recover from an infection, even if no medication is given, hence the body has some innate immunity. The innate immune response is the same regardless of the antigen that invades the body. Antigens are any foreign molecule. Pattern recognition receptors on leukocytes detect molecules that are unique to pathogens and activate the inflammatory response.
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Table 51.2
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Neutrophil Macrophage Mast cell 1094 nm 185 nm 185 nm 185 nm LEUKOCYTES - INNATE RESPONSE
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Red blood cell Platelet 1. Pathogens enter wound. 2. Platelets release blood-clotting proteins. Blood vessel 3. Injured tissues and macrophages release chemokines to recruit help. Macrophage Mast cell 4. Mast cells release factors that constrict blood vessels at wound and dilate vessels nearby. Neutrophil Leaky blood vessel 5. Neutrophils arrive and begin phagocytosizing pathogens. 6. Other leukocytes arrive and mature into macrophages. Macrophage Initiate tissue repair Induce fever, increase leukocyte production
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The Adaptive Immune Response: Recognition The adaptive immune response Also known as the acquired immune response Is based on interactions between specific immune system cells and a specific antigen Antibodies Are proteins that are produced and secreted by certain lymphocytes Bind only to a specific part of a specific antigen
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The Adaptive Immune Response: Recognition The four key characteristics of the adaptive immune response are 1. Specificity —antibodies and other components of the adaptive immune system bind only to specific sites on specific antigens 2. Diversity —the adaptive response recognizes an almost limitless array of antigens
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The Adaptive Immune Response: Recognition 3. Memory —the adaptive response can be reactivated quickly if it recognizes antigens from a previous infection 4. Self/non-self recognition —molecules that are produced by an individual do not act as antigens, so the adaptive immune system can distinguish between self and non-self
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The Acquired/Adaptive Immune Response: Recognition The acquired immune response is specific for each pathogen.
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