01603716 - Copy (2) - 626 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN...

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626 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2006 Dynamic Spectrum Access in Open Spectrum Wireless Networks Yiping Xing , Student Member, IEEE , R. Chandramouli , Member, IEEE , Stefan Mangold , Member, IEEE , and Sai Shankar N Abstract— One of the reasons for the limitation of bandwidth in current generation wireless networks is the spectrum policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). But, with the spec- trum policy reform, open spectrum wireless networks, and spec- trum agile radios are set to drive next general wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate continuous-time Markov models for dy- namic spectrum access in open spectrum wireless networks. Both queueing and no queueing cases are considered. Analytical results are derived based on the Markov models. A random access pro- tocol is proposed that is shown to achieve airtime fairness. A dis- tributed version of this protocol that uses only local information is also proposed based on homo egualis anthropological model. In- equality aversion by the radio systems to achieve fairness is cap- tured by this model. These protocols are then extended to spectrum agile radios. Extensive simulation results are presented to compare the performances of fixed versus agile radios. Index Terms— Access control, cognitive science, game theory, queueing analysis, spectrum management. I. I NTRODUCTION T HE USAGE OF radio spectrum, and the regulation of radio emissions are coordinated by national regulatory bodies. In the U.S., the main authorities for radio spectrum regulation are the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for com- mercial applications, and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for government use. His- torically, FCC and NTIA divided the radio spectrum into many frequency bands, and licenses for the often exclusive usage of these bands are provided to operators, typically for a long time such as one or two decades. Depending on the type of radio ser- vice that is then provided by the licensees, frequency bands are often idle in many areas, and inefficiently used. This is not in the interest of the regulatory bodies, because they attempt to achieve high efficiency in the usage of radio resources. The al- ternative way of radio spectrum regulation is the usage of unli- censed frequency bands, also referred to as open spectrum, that can be used by any radio system, under some restrictions called spectrum etiquettes . Open spectrum networking has several ad- vantages. It facilitates mobility and usage efficiency, as a license Manuscript received January 16, 2005; revised June 1, 2005. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant NSF CAREER 0133761. Y. Xing and R. Chandramouli are with the Department of Electrical and Com- puter Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA (e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]).
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