EPSY Notes - EPSY Notes August 20th 2015 Study of...

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EPSY Notes August 20 th , 2015 Study of Motivation It is the examination of arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior. Motivation theorists have been concerned mainly with the question of what arouses and energizes behavior. “Energize” applies not only to the immediate behavior but to long-term behavior as well. Motivation Theorists o Theorists are interested in identifying that underlying motivational processes. o Theorists assume that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses. o Theorists generally assume that motivation affects perception and memory. August 25 th , 2015 Early Conception about Human Motivation o Greek philosophers formally explain motive as seeking pleasure and avoid pain o The position of hedonism has remained in psychology and philosophy o Dualism was created to embrace the dual nature of body and soul o The concept instinct emerged as an explanation as to how animals use persuasive actions Modern Concepts about Human Motivation o Evolutionary theory suggests that evolution occurs by means of natural selection. The route to understanding human behavior was to observe humans in relation to their environment. o Behaviorism introduced ideas about stabilizing the general directions of choice with an emphasis on drive. o Ethologists – students of animal behavior. Animals are capable of modifying innate responses in the face of environmental obstacles and can even learn certain new responses. August 27 th , 2015 Learning Theorists
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o They argue that direction and persistence were due to the operation of principles of learning. Direction is due to the process of reinforcement and persistence is due to the scheduling of reinforcement. Cognition is largely a nonessential phenomenon. Cognitive Theorists o How people interpret or label an event has a great deal to do with the future direction of their behavior Some Current Issues in Motivation o Environmental stimuli as sources of motivational arousal o Single versus multiple determinants of behavior o Persistence of behavior over time o Interaction of motive systems o Primacy of cognitions versus biological drives Effects of Motivation o Motivation directs behavior toward a particular goals o Motivation increases effort and energy expanded toward these goals o Motivation increases initiation of and persistence in activities o Motivation enhances cognitive processing o Motivation leads to improved performance September 1 st , 2015 Motivational Mechanisms/ Processes There are 3 types of motivational mechanisms or process 1. Biological – things that you need drive you 2. Learned – doing processes in repetition 3. Cognitive (think about heroes) – there is mindfulness o an action involves all 3 processes Biological Component Genetic structure not only sets a behavior in motion but gives direction to the behavior Genetic structure makes it possible for us to learn certain things and not others (e.g. language) Open versus closed programs
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