L3Nutrition Surveillanceforman2015

L3Nutrition Surveillanceforman2015 - Define surveillance...

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2/10/15 1 Dr. Michele Forman Lecture 3 Spring 2015 ! Define surveillance " Distinguish active from passive surveillance ! Identify rates based on surveillance ! Purpose of surveillance ! Steps in developing surveillance ! Illustrative examples of surveillance sytems ! Define monitoring ! Surveillance: “Watching” over nutritional status to make decisions on policies and programs aimed at improving the nutritional status of poor populations ! “Ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice closely integrated with the timely dissemination of these data to those who need to know” ! Who are those who need to know? ! Ongoing data collection or regular collection with feed back to appropriate groups ! Uses “available” data of populations attending centers where data are routinely collected passive data collection” or deliberately collects data “ active data collection” ! Passive : use of available data from health care providers or district health officers " Best: Scandinavia " Quality depends on health care provider staff " Disadvantages: # Burden to staff to complete surveillance forms # May lead to underreporting of cases " Advantages: # Inexpensive # Easy to develop
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2/10/15 2 ! Active : Develop surveillance system or program by dedicated staff who carry out the surveillance by: " Surveying counties, towns, villages, individuals # Logistically challenging # May be difficult to reach # May not have laboratory or other quality control measures so need to set them up ! Training & re-training staff = expensive ! Periodic field visits to clinics, hospitals, homes = costly NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL ! Watchful ! Aimed at poor populations ! Goal to decide on policy and programs ! Passive surveillance ! Ongoing, systematic data collection ! Aimed at those who need to know ! Goal to plan implement and evaluate public health practice ! Active surveillance ! Population-based ! Data are readily interpretable for policy and program !
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