1a.Chemistry - H H C H H Structural formula Ball-and-stick...

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Slide 1 H H H H C Structural formula Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model Models of Methane = natural gas Figure 3.2 Page 36
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Slide 2 Ball-and-stick models of glucose (brown = carbon, red = oxygen, blue = hydrogen) In-text figure Page 36
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Slide 3 or Carbon rings In-text figure Page 37 C or H usually are attached to the end of each stick; but many other groups like methyl, carboxyl, amino, etc. could attach too.
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Slide 4 HYDROXYL METHYL CARBONYL CARBOXYL AMINO PHOSPHATE (alcohol) (aldehyde; —CHO) (nonionized; —COOH) (ionized; —COO ) (nonionized; —NH 2 ) (ionized; + NH 3 ) (icon for phosphate group) (ketone; =CO) Figure 3.5 Page 38 H+
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Slide 5 An Estrogen, female Testosterone, male Figure 3.6 Page 38 CHOLESTEROL BASED HORMONES Male and female hormones are very similar chemically
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Slide 6 enzyme action at functional groups CONDENSATION: water is lost as sugars form glycosidic  bonds, amino acids form peptide bonds, fats form ester  bonds, etc. Figure 3.7a Page 39 sugar sugar
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Slide 7 enzyme action at functional groups HYDROLYSIS: water used to break/split glycosidic,  peptide and ester bonds (all covalent bonds) Figure 3.7b Page 39 CONDENSATION  -------  HYDROLYSIS
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Slide 8 Structure of glucose Structure of fructose Figure 3.8a Page 40 ALCOHOL (OH Oxygen does not electrons equ The large number of alcohol OH’s, which are dipolar, and allow water to easily dissolve sugars
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Slide 9 glucose fructose sucrose + H 2 O Figure 3.8b Page 40 Two simple sugars form a disaccharide, sucrose. Sucrose is sweet to many vertebrates, but not all, because of fructose Glycoside bond-between sugars 2 monosaccarides or Simple sugars 1 disaccaride
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Slide 10 Cellulose chains Starch chain Figure 3.9 Page 40 Many monosaccarides coupled via glycosidic bonds form polysaccarides.
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