1b.+NUTRITION+2015 - NUTRITION ,...

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NUTRITION     There are  four major foodstuffs  of bacteria, plants and animals that are the building  blocks of all cells and tissues, and are used for energy. They are: Carbohydrates, Lipids,  Proteins, and Nucleic acids and are composed mostly of carbon (C), hydrogen (H),  oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N). We are what we eat. Vertebrate cells can make most of the  carbohydrates (sugars & starch), fats/lipids (fatty acids and glycerol) and nucleic acids  from each other, but can only make 13 of the 22 amino acids in sufficient quantities for  growth. Vitamins and minerals must be obtained from the diet. Four Major Foodstuffs 1.  CARBOHYDRATES-are polyhydroxyalcohols that have one aldehyde (-C=0) or  ketone group, and have carbon:hydrogen:oxygen ratios of 1:2:1. Function is primarily as  immediate (sugars) and stored energy (starch). Complex carbohydrates are composed of  thousands of simple sugars that are covalently bonded together by the glycosidic bond.  The flame of life is fueled by carbohydrates. Most carbohydrates are soluble/dissolve in  water because of dipolar hydroxyl groups. a.  Simple sugars or monosaccharides - 4 to 7 carbons long; used for immediate  or stored energy, or pentose sugars-5 carbons (ribose, deoxyribose) which are used in  ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Most common simple sugars are glucose,  fructose, & galactose. Blood sugar is glucose, sweetest sugar is fructose. b . Disaccharides- two monosaccharides bonded together by glycosidic bonds. 
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2 C 6 H 12 O 6   -- -->  C 12 H 22 C 12  + H 2 0 Dehydration reaction 2 C 6 H 12 O 6   <----  C 12 H 22 C 12  + H 2 0 Hydration reaction Examples:  Maltose = glucose-glucose (Most common),  Sucrose = glucose-fructose (cane or beet sugar), sweetest sugar,  Lactose = glucose-galactose (milk sugar) c . POLYSACCARIDES are long chains and/or branched chains of  monosaccarides bonded together by glycosidic bonds. Function as stored energy  of glycogen or starch of the liver and muscle. Major polysaccarides are starch or glycogen  and cellulose of plant cell walls. The enzyme amylase breaks down starch  to maltose and occurs universially among animals. In contrast, cellulose is only slowly  broken down by herbivores and not at all by man. Starch has the alpha type  glycosidic bond while cellulose has the beta type glycosidic bond. Animals do not have  enzymes to handle the beta glycosidic bond of cellulose.
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