2e.+Metabolism+9-15 - CELLMETABOLISM(CHAPT.8...

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CELL METABOLISM ( CHAPT. 8 ) 1. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION - NO OXYGEN USED, GLYCOLYSIS, OCCURS  IN CYTOSOL,  C 6 H 12 O 6 ---> 2 Pyruvic acids + 2 ATPs 2. *AEROBIC RESPIRATION - OXYGEN REQUIRED, KREBS CYCLE &  OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, OCCURS IN MITOCHONDRIA,  C 6 H 12 O 6 ---> CO 2  + H 2 O + energy (38 ATPs, 45% + heat, 55%)  * Glycolysis must occur before aerobic respiration occurs.  Glycolysis operates under conditions with and without oxygen Chemical energy tied up in molecules like Foodstuffs (glucose, etc) is released  as these foodstuffs are broken down to carbon dioxide and water. The chemical  energy is trapped in molecules like ATP which can transfer it to be used in  building new molecules for cells. In the transfer of chemical energy about 50%  comes off as heat. With time all the chemical energy would be converted to heat. Where does new chemical energy come from?  PHOTOSYNTHESIS  which gets  its energy from sun which gets its energy from nuclear reactions (1st & 2nd laws). PHOTOSYNTHESIS recycles carbon dioxide and water into new foodstuffs. CO 2  + H 2 O + energy(sun) ------> C 6 H 12 O (foodstuffs) = PHOTOSYNTHESIS C 6 H 12 O 6 ---> CO 2  + H 2 O + energy (used by plants and animals) = RESPIRATION
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Fuel of Life-sugar METABOLISM Requires chemical energy to put atoms  together to make foodstuffs SUGAR MADE BY PLANTS & USED  BY ANIMALS MAJOR FUNCTIONS; 1) Interconversions of various products of catabolism 2) Combustion to carbon dioxide and water 3) Supply intermediates for biosynthesis
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MITOCHONDRION (aerobic) CYTOSOL (anaerobic/aerobic) THIS STEP NOT REVERSIBLE; so Fatty acids can not made into sugars and  only used in aerobic exercise. PYRUVATE               ACETYL-CoA 2 C0 2 4 C0 2 36 ATPs 2 ATPs Metabolic water FOODSTUFFS =
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sunlight energy water + carbon dioxide Sugar molecules ALL FOOD STUFFS oxygen ATP USED TO BUILD  MOLECULES OR DO  CELL WORK Sugar molecules converted to amino  acids & fatty acids, etc. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AEROBIC RESPIRATION Sun’s light energy used by plants to make carbon compounds like glucose AIR
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ATP, NAD (NADH) and NADP (NADPH ) are forms of chemical energy that are formed from chemical energy of other molecules or light energy from the sun (photosynthesis) Chemical energy in the form of ATP, NAD (NADH) and NADP (NADPH ) is used by living organisms to make larger molecules or to hook atoms together (assimilation/anabolism) Simply put; these molecules are used to transfer energy from one chemical reaction to another Remember when transferring chemical energy heat always shows up (second Law)
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ATP: Main Energy Carrier ATP couples energy inputs and outputs ATP/ADP cycle regenerates ATP energy input ADP + P i energy output ATP From glucose used to bond phosphate to ADP Chemical energy to build  molecules comes from ATP Chemical energy
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