1.+Life%2C+energy%2C+food+copy

1.+Life%2C+energy%2C+food+copy - PHYSIOLOGY The study of...

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“The study of how animals work” – Knut Schmidt Nielsen Structure and function of various parts How these parts work together Where an organism lives is determined by its physiology and biochemistry Diversity of animals More than a million species live on Earth and survive & function in many different environments PHYSIOLOGY:
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http://www.sciencecourseware.org/eec/GlobalWarming/ Tutorials/Milankovitch/ Video on earth’s movements effecting climate
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BIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
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Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws Physiological processes are usually regulated Homeostasis – maintenance of internal constancy Physiological phenotype is a product of the genotype and the environment Genotype – genetic makeup Phenotype – morphology, physiology, and behavior Genotype is the product of evolution which is driven by natuaral selection UNIFYING THEMES OF PHYSIOLOGY
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FACTORS AFFECTING PHENOTYPE Natural selection
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Physical properties of a material are linked to BIOLOGICAL function (e.g., bone, muscle) Chemical laws govern molecular interactions (e.g., effects of temperature) Electrical laws describe membrane function, including excitable cells Body size influences biochemical and physical patterns – allometric scaling ( relationships between size & shape) Strategies for coping with changing conditions Conformers – allow internal conditions to change with external conditions-lower vertebrates, invertebrates Regulators – maintain relatively constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions-mammals, birds PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL LAWS      OPERATE IN PHYSIOLOGY
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Maintenance of internal conditions in the face of environmental perturbations Controlled by feedback loops or reflex control pathways Negative feedback loops Positive feedback loops HOMEOSTASIS
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WHAT IS LIFE OR LIVING? Aristotle believed life could be explained by the laws of nature  (chemistry and physics), while other philosophers believed life had  a “vital force” was necessary. CHARACTERISTICS- come pair with flame on candle 1) GROWTH 2) REPRODUCTION 3) MOVEMENT 4) ASSIMILATION- making complex molecules from  simpler ones 5) CATABOLISM- breaking down complex molecules to  simpler ones to release energy 6) Irritability/responsiveness 7) Adaptability
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FORMS OF ENERGY 1) LIGHT ENERGY - SUN 2) NUCLEAR ENERGY- deep in earth and the sun 3)  ELECTRICAL ENERGY associated with electrons  and ions 4) HEAT ENERGY/KINETIC ENERGY- energy of motion 5) CHEMICAL ENERGY- associated with chemical bonds that  hold atoms to molecules, ex. Food, wood, etc LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS: 1)  First Law - energy is neither created nor destroyed but can  change from one type of energy to another. In the conversions  heat is always are portion of the energy formed.
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