12.+Respiration+11-11-15

12.+Respiration+11-11-15 - Thank the plants for providing...

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All respiratory organs in all animals have the same basic problems  and function in the same manner. All must be:  A) moist,  B) have high surface area, and  C) be vascular:  1) Oxygen must dissolve in water first & then diffuse into a cell,  2) High surface area increases the quantity of oxygen entering a  cell,  3) Vascularity increases the ability to void carbon dioxide  carried  from the tissues and to pick up oxygen to be  delivered  to the tissues. Respiratory Organs: Lungs, gills, skin Thank the plants for providing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide
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4) The wet mucous lining the lungs, skin, or gills have a high surface area due to numerous alveoli, folds or filaments and numerous capillaries to accomplish these goals. 5) Diffusion in lungs thru a thick mucous layer, destruction of alveolar walls, and formation of non-elastic connective tissue due to tissue damage all reduce gas exchange and lead to respiratory failure. 6) All respiratory organs follow the rules of chemistry and physics and the type of respiratory organ animals have limits where they live. 7) AS TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY INCREASE THE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN DECREASES . 8) For oxygen to enter a cell, organism or whatever, the gas must first dissolve in water and then diffuse inward. Thus, all respiratory surfaces must be wet . 9) Fick’s Law of Diffusion J s = D (A) C/x x D =diffusion coefficient A = area C/x = change in concentration over distance
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Ventilation Lungs Vertebrates 1) Lungs vary from simple air sacs off the anterior gut as in fishes (gars; physostomi) with pneumatic duct to the very complex lungs of birds and mammals. 2) Primitive air breathing vertebrates like salamanders have smooth walled lungs with little partitioning. 3) In reptiles the lungs become sponge-like and more divided with partitions with air pockets, alveoli and a central air tube to increase surface area and gas exchange. Remember amphibians and fish usually also use gills/skin for gas exchange, while reptiles with dry epidermal scales must depend on lungs. Also, reptiles are much more active than amphibians. Reptilian lungs are more advanced than amphibian or fish lungs.
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Mouth opens & water drawn in& some passes thru the gills Mouth closes & more water is pushed over the gills and out of the gill chamber while operculum is open HOW WATER MOVES OVER  THE GILLS OF FISH High resistance interfers with diffusion so  concentration difference between blood and gills great Higher O 2 Higher CO 2
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Figure 21.14 The three major steps in the ventilatory cycle of an adult bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) 1) Fill buccal cavity before emptying lungs 2) Glottis opens, air leaves lungs 3) Buccal floor raised to force air into lungs Exhalation by elastic recoil of muscles
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Reptile breathing Reptiles breath with lungs ● Both oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide excretion by way of lung ● Lung is simple sac with vascularized partitions
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