08 Goldinger1996 - Journal of Experimental Psychology...

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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1996, Vol.22. No. 5,1166-1183 Copyright 19% by the American Psychological Association, Inc 0278-7393/96/$3.00 Words and Voices: Episodic Traces in Spoken Word Identification and Recognition Memory Stephen D. Goldinger Arizona State University Most theories of spoken word identification assume that variable speech signals are matched to canonical representations in memory. To achieve this, idiosyncratic voice details are 6rst normalized, allowing direct comparison of the input to the lexicon. This investigation assessed both explicit and implicit memory for spoken words as a function of speakers' voices, delays between study and test, and levels of processing. In 2 experiments, voice attributes of spoken words were clearly retained in memory. Moreover, listeners were sensitive to fine-grained similarity between 1st and 2nd presentations of different-voice words, but only when words were initially encoded at relatively shallow levels of processing. The results suggest that episodic memory traces of spoken words retain the surface details typically considered as noise in perceptual systems. In a now-classic article, Oldfield (1966) first described the mental lexicon, a collection of words in long-term memory that mediates perceptual access to lexical knowledge. The lexicon has since been a focus of extensive investigation and theoriz- ing. Painting in broad strokes, there are two basic views on lexical representation: Abstractionist theories view the lexicon as a set of ideal, modality-free units, and episodic theories assume that groups of detailed traces collectively represent individual words (see Roediger & McDermott, 1993; Ten- penny, 1995). The abstractionist view is prominent in current theories; perception is typically assumed to involve informa- tion reduction, which is the decoding of specific episodes (tokens) into canonical representations (types; Morton, 1969; Posner, 1964). However, some theories posit episodic represen- tations and perception, bypassing such decoding. Global memory models (Eich, 1982; Gillund & Shiffrin, 1984; Hintz- man, 1986; Underwood, 1969), exemplar categorization mod- els (Nosofsky, 1991), and distributed memory models (McClel- land & Rumelhart, 1985) all assume episodic traces (although processing assumptions clearly differ). This article is based on a doctoral dissertation submitted to Indiana University. Support was provided by National Institutes of Health Research Grant DC-00111-16 and National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Training Grant DC- 00012-13 to Indiana University, and NIDCD First Award R29- DC02629-01 to Arizona State University. I thank Rich Shiffrin, Linda Smith, and Bob Port for early sugges- tions. Special thanks to David Pisoni for 5 years of guidance and support, Lisa Burgin for tireless data collection, and Scott Lively for perusing the data with a keen and critical eye. Larry Jacoby, Carol Fowler, Patricia Tenpenny, Dominic Massaro, and Dan Schacter all provided feedback on earlier versions. Comments were also kindly
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