2112 Lectures 24-25 Study Guide(1)

2112 Lectures 24-25 Study Guide(1) - Lecture 24...

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Lecture 24 - Transcription 1) List the four primary gene products. (Slide 5) Messenger RNA (mRNA) Protein coding - RNA polymerase II Micro RNA (miRNA) - RNA polymerase II Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - RNA polymerase I Transfer RNA (tRNA) - RNA polymerase III 2) In prokaryotes transcription and translation are coupled . How does this differ from eukaryotes? (Pg. 337, paragraph 1, sentences 2-5) Bacteria do not have nuclei, their DNA is not separate by nuclear membranes fom ribosome and the other protein- synthesizing equipment. Lack of compartmentalization allows translation of an mRNA to begin while its transcription is still in progress. The nuclear envelope separates transcription from translation in space and time. 3) A. Given the following DNA template, what is the sequence and orientation of the messenger RNA gene product? Include the direction of transcription along the DNA template. (Pg. 338, Fig. 17.4, and Lecture 25, Slide 13) 5’-TTA ATT TTG ATG ATA CGC TGT GGG AGA GAC AAT AAG AAA CAT-3’ 3’-AAT TAAAACTAC TAT GCG ACA CCC TCT CTG TTA TTC TTT GTA-5’ One DNA strand functions as a template for transcription of RNAs, such as mRNA. The base pairing rules for DNA synthesis also guide transcription except uracil takes place of thymine in RNA. mRNA is reas as a sequence of nucleotide triplets call codons. Each codon specifies an animo acid to added to growing chain mRNA reads 5’-3’. B. What is the translated product of this messenger RNA? (Pg. 339, Fig. 17.5) The three nucleotides based of mRNA codon are designated here as first, second, and third bases reading 5’-3’ direction along mRNA. The codon AUG not only stands for the amino acid methionine but also functions as a start signal for ribosomes to begin translating the mRNA at that point. Three of the 64 codon as stop signals marking ribosomes end translation. 3) What is a “reading frame”? (Pg. 339, paragraph 1, sentence 6) Our ability to extract the intended message from a written language depends on reading the symbols in the correct grouping. Reading fram is important in the molecular language Gene promoter region
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of cells. Short stetch of polypeptide will be made correctly one if the mRNA nucleotide are read from left to right. UGG,UUU,GGC,UCU in figure 17.4 5) List the stages of transcription and describe the events of each stage in ~1 sentence. (Pg. 340, Fig. 17.7) The stages of transcription include 1. Initiation, 2. Enlongation 3. Termination. The general depiction is to apply both bacteria and eukaryotes but the detail of termation differ, the RNA transcript is released and the polymerase detaches from the DNA. RNA transcript is immediately useable as mRNA, in eukorate RNA transcript must firs undergo processing. 6) A. What is the role of the TATA box during the initiation of transcription? (Pg. 341, paragraph 5) A eukaryotic promoter commonly includes a TATA box, a nucleotide sequence containing TAT about 25 nucleotide upstream from the transcriptional start point. Several transcription factors, one recognizing the TAT box, must bind to the DNA before RNA polymerase II can bind in the correct position and orientation. Additional transcription
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