kin 2500 exam 2 - Test 2 Osseous Tissue Functions o Protect...

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Test 2 Osseous Tissue - Functions o Protect- Skull protects the brain o Structure- look the way we do because of bones o Lever system- muscles and bones create a lever system o Mineral and fat storage o Hematopoiesis (Hemopoiesis)- blood cell formation Red marrow is where blood cell formation takes place - Characteristics o Inorganic (calcium salts) and organic (osteoid) elements- makes it unique o Highly resistant to tensile and compressive forces Tensile strength= 2500-3500 kg/cm2 (17 tons/sq in, equal to iron) Compressive strength in articular regions, male adult- 270 kg/step (walking) - Tissue cells o Osteoprogenitor (osteogenic) Always mitotic, constantly dividing and creating new cells After a certain point, lose the ability to become mitotic and differentiate into > o Osteoblast Forming and secreting the osteoid (organic element), new bone tissue, bone matrix Unique ability to de-differentiate, becomes mitotic once again in order to rebuild bone After a certain amount of time, differentiates into > o Osteocytes No longer making new bone tissue, but maintaining the status of the bone, can live for two decades or more Once they die, sign for old bone to replace the new bone o Osteoclast Not a bone cell at all, it’s a bone cell! Does not derive from chain Macrophage Has a ruffled border- involved with removing bone PM extentions move away softer bone and then the cell actually ingests it Opposite of blast, clast means to break down Break down and removal of older bone
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Long Bone* - Describes basic shape, not length - Diaphysis (1) o Main part of the bone, shaft, body of the bone o Composed of compact bone - Metaphysis (2) o Have a proximal and a distal Metaphysis on either side of the Diaphysis o Epiphyseal growth plate found on the Metaphysis - Distal/proximal Epiphysis (2) o Extreme ends of the bone o Articular cartilage covers these ends o Red marrow found here - Epiphysis and Metaphysis will consists of compact bone over spongy bone* - Diaphysis is nearly, exclusively compact - Medullary cavity ( yellow cavity) o Contains yellow marrow, inside hollow part of the diaphysis o Mineral storage Periosteum- covers the bone everywhere except where there is articular cartilage - Periosteum has 2 layers o Outer Most superficial, most dense Tendons and ligaments attach here (Periosteum to Periosteum) Sharpey’s fibers Run through the inner to the outer and attach the bone underneath, Periosteum is attached to the bone through these fibers Bundles of collagen o Osteogenic layer (inner) Sharpey’s fibers past through it Part of the Periosteum that deals with bone growth and repair (osteogenic and Osteoblasts cells) Vascular Periosteum carries vessels that go into the bone Periosteal arteries go into the periosteum and superficial layer of compact bone around the diaphysis o Nutrient artery Specifically goes in and feeds spongy bone and to the red marrow - Red marrow o Hematopoiesis takes place here
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o Found in the proximal and distal
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