kin 2500 exam 5 - Test 4 BLOOD Blood Functions Distributive...

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Test 4 BLOOD Blood Functions: - Distributive o Delivers oxygen and nutrients to all cells o Carries metabolic wastes to elimination sites o Carries hormones to target organs o Maintains body temperature ; absorbs and distributes heat 22-25% of cardiac output is put toward cooling purposes during hot humid weather, rather than carrying nutrients and oxygen to the muscles and organs ** - Protective o Maintains normal pH of tissues o Maintains circulatory volume If you go give blood, your circulatory volume will be back to normal very quickly o Prevents blood loss o Combats infection Physical Characteristics of Blood (FYI*) - Viscosity= 4.5-5.5 - Temperature= 38 degrees C/ 100.4 degrees F - pH= 7.35-7.45 - NaCl (normal saline)concentrations= .85%- .90% - Total body weight= 8% - Volume= 4-5 L for women, 5-6 L for men Slide 3- Good overview of components of blood Hematopoiesis (Hemopoiesis)- blood cell formations - Occurs in: ( All blood cells, start in the myeloid tissue [red marrow/spongy bone] ) o Myeloid tissue (begin and fully completed) Erythrocytes (rbc-red blood cell) All granulocytes (wbc) Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils One agranulocyte (wbc) Monocyte Thrombocytes (platelets) o Lymphoid tissue (start in myeloid but end in lymphoid) One agranulocyte (wbc) Lymphocytes o Helper T
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o Cytotoxic T ( directly kills antigens in the body ) o Suppressor T ( controls other T cells ) Slide 6** Pluripotent stem cell (result of a differentiated Mesenchymal cell ) - Can replicate itself and replenish itself - Will differentiate into: o Myeloid stem o Lymphoid stem Multipotent- differentiate into a number of other blood cells, also replenish - Ex. Myeloid and lymphoid Progenitor level (blue blocks) - can only differentiate, cannot replenish - Ultimately become the adult blood cells - Don’t need to know blue blocks* Proerythroblast (special process= erythropoiesis) 1 st stage- Formation of ribosomes 2 nd stage- Formation of specialized proteins called hemoglobin (becomes the dominant component of the adult rbc ) - Hemoglobin carries the oxygen throughout the body - 4 Iron atoms on the hemoglobin molecules, and each carries one oxygen 3 rd stage- Reticulocyte established (immature red cell) - Nucleus is rejected - Hemoglobin remains along with a very small fragment of ER 4 th Stage- Mature red cell - When the Reticulocyte is released, it is still an immature cell, it matures in the blood stream Stimulus- interrupts homeostasis !!! - Oxygen delivery decreases o Caused by aerobic exercise o Loss of blood (injury, disease ) - Hypoxia= decreased levels of oxygen - REF (renal erythropoietin factor)- acts on albumin, results in the formation of erythropoitin o Goes into the blood stream, Hematopoiesis takes place faster o REF is secreted by the kidneys when a drop in oxygen is detected
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PM of rbc - All pm’s are malleable and can change shape , rbc’s pm does the same, and doesn’t lose any of its function - Spectrin- protein that give the pm of the rbc great flexibility o Capillaries are really small , this allows the rbc to pass through ER left in the adult rbc - As calcium increases,
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