Sociology Exam Notes - Sociology Exam Notes Empirical...

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Sociology Exam Notes Empirical Research Parts of Empirical Research Abstract Introduction and Review of the Literature Methods = Sample, Measurement, Data Collection Methods Findings or Results Discussion of the Results Conclusion References Appendix Research Design Quantitative Research Select and define the research problem Review previous research Formulate the hypothesis (if applicable) Develop the research design Collect and analyze the data Qualitative Research 1. The researcher begins with a general approach rather than a highly detailed plan 2. The researcher has to decide when the literature review and theory application should take place 3. The study presents a detailed view of the topic: fewer cases (maybe only one) and many variables Qualitative research is more likely to be used where the research question does not easily lend itself to numbers and statistical methods Research Topic Three Research Orientations: A social scientist’s research orientation (purpose) informs the type of study done: The purpose of social scientific research is usually to explore, describe and/or explain a topic o Exploratory Studies o Descriptive Studies o Explanatory Studies o Researchers can use a combination of the 3 Exploratory Studies:
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attempt to develop an initial understanding of some phenomenon used when the subject is relatively new answer “How and What” questions Descriptive Studies: precisely measure or describe the characteristics of a population or phenomenon under study qualitative or quantitative studies may aim specifically at description answer “What, When, Where and How” questions Explanatory Studies: discover and report relationships among different aspects of the phenomenon under study most quantitative studies aim specifically at explanation answer “Why” questions Ask a research question that: is sociologically imaginative concerns differences between individuals, groups, roles, relationships, social artifacts or time periods requires more than a simple yes or no answer has more than one plausible answer draws relationships between concepts is related to your assignment requirements What is a review of the literature? based on the assumption that knowledge accumulates and we can learn from and build on what other researchers have done presents the current state of knowledge pulls together different hypotheses, findings, measures, sampling designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives the main goal is to integrate and summarize the key points in the empirical studies make links between the studies concurrent analysis outline the current direction of research on the topic point out areas where prior studies agree or disagree and where major research questions remain Variables A variable : any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary
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