1_Introduction of Basic Surveying

# 1_Introduction of Basic Surveying - Chapter 1 Introduction...

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction of Basic Surveying What is Surveying? Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of points on or near the surface of the earth. It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances between objects, of measuring angles between lines, of determining the direction of lines, and of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. Along with the actual survey measurements are mathematical calculations. Distances, angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas, and volumes are thus determined from the data of the survey. Survey data is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross-sections, and diagrams. Aqueduct in Spain Pyramid in Egypt

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2 Types of surveys: 1. Geodetic Surveying: - The type of surveying that takes into account the true shape of the earth. - These surveys are of high precision and extend over large areas. 2. Plane Surveying: - The type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane (in which its spheroidal shape is neglected) with regard to horizontal distances and directions. - Measurements are made as if the lines of force due to gravity were everywhere parallel to each other, as if underneath the irregular ground surface there existed a flat, horizontal reference plane.
3 Operations in Surveying: i. Control survey

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• Fall '16
• FOSTEM
• Geodesy, Surveying, systematic errors, viii. Engineering Survey, Basic Surveying

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