Notes-Chap 1,2 - Prologue/Ch1: HistoryofPsychology...

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Prologue/Ch 1: Introduction to the Science of Psychology Unscientific Psychology  Our beliefs influence how we evaluate information History of Psychology  Wilhelm Wundt, 1879-Psychology is seen as a science  Starting in the 19th century, psychology was mainly the study of cognitive processes  (consciousness and memory) Psychology transitioned to the study of behavior, 1920’s-1960’s  However, now both are acceptable. Psychology is the study of both cognitive processes  and behavior How Psychologist Approach Psychology  Biopsychosocial Approach -understanding any behavior or cognitive process  ex. Depression Biological Factors: genetic, hormones, disabilities  Psychological Factors: what you believe you have control in Social Factors: friends and family issues, stressful events  Does a person behave the way they do because of nature of nurture?  nature and nurture work together and their effects are inseparable genes do not necessarily determine behavior, in fact, the environment can turn genes on or off (expressed in one environment but not another)  genes are not deterministic, rather make protein  Critical Thinking Question what you are told and what you tell yourself  Ethnocentrism: the evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions from one’s  own culture  Methods of Gathering Data Case Studies don’t prove anything, may not apply to others hard to see a pattern regarding the topic of study Naturalistic Observation observing individuals behaving in their natural habitat without interfering  good way to get information regarding behavior that may not occur in a lab Sampling Representative Samples Random Samples: a sample in which every member of the population has an equal  chance to be selected  Volunteer Bias the people who agree to take part in a survey, have strong opinions about the survey
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Research Methods Correlational Research if two variables are correlated, you can pick the value of one based on the other Correlations Positive Correlation: one variable increases, the other increases (and vice versa, both  decrease)  Negative Correlation: one variable increases, the other decreases ex. students that have fewer absences, have higher grades than students who have  more absences  Issues with Correlational Research
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