Chapter-6-Foundations-of-Business-Intelligence-Databases-and-Information-Management

Chapter-6-Foundations-of-Business-Intelligence-Databases-and-Information-Management

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Eric Leones Chapter 6 – Foundations of Business Intelligence: Database and Information Management Organising Data in a Traditional File Environment Effective IS provides users with accurate (free of errors), timely (available to decision makers when needed) and relevant (useful and appropriate to the types of work and decisions that require it) information. File Organization and Terms and Concepts Computer system organizes data in a hierarchy that starts with bits and bytes and progresses to fields, records, files and databases Bit – smallest unit of data a computer can handle Byte – group of bits representing a single character (e.g letter, number or symbol) Field – group of words or a complete number (e.g name or age). Columns of a table and also represent an attribute Record – group of related fields (e.g student name, course taken, date, grade). On a table they are called “rows” or “tuples” File – group of records of the same type Entity – records describes this. It can be a person, place, thing, or event on which we store and maintain information Attribute – each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity (e.g student_ID, Course, data, grade are attributes of entity Course) Primary Key – one field that is designated. Can not have a null value and cannot be duplicated Foreign Key – is a primary key in another entity. Problems with the Traditional File Environment Accounting, finance, manufacturing, human resources, and sales and marketing all developed their own systems and data files. Each application required its own files and its own computer program to operate In the company as a whole, multiple master files were created, maintained, operated by separate divisions or departments Resulting problems: 1) Data Redundancy and Inconsistency Data Redundancy – duplicate data in multiple data files so same data are stored in more than place or location. Organizations with different groups may collect same pieces of data and store it independently of each other. Data Inconsistency – same attributes have different values. Data redundancy also leads to data inconsistency Additional confusing might result from using different coding systems to represent values for an attribute making it difficult for companies to create CRM, SCM, or enterprise systems that integrate data from different sources. 2) Program-Data Dependence
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Eric Leones Program-data dependence – coupling of data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files such that changes in programs require changes to the data. In a traditional file environment, any change in a software program could require a change in the data accessed by that program. Such changes could cost millions of dollars to implement properly 3) Lack of Flexibility Traditional file systems can deliver routine schedules reports after extensive
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