Ch 2 Research and Statistics - Research Statistics Intro to...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Research & Statistics Intro to Sociology Shaun Dixon, M.A. Social Research How do we know anything ? Social Research Why do we need social research? Social Research What exactly is research ? Social Research Three Ways to Do Social Research 1. Positivist Sociology 2. Interpretive Sociology 3. Critical Sociology Positivist Sociology The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior Concept A Mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form Variable A concept whose value changes from case to case (varies) Measurement A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case Positivist Sociology Operationalizing Variable Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable Arrest rate; arrested, convicted, sentenced, or imprisoned Positivist Sociology Reliability and Validity Reliability Consistency in measurement Validity Actually measuring exactly what you intended to measure Positivist Sociology Relationships Cause and Effect A relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another Independent and Dependent Variables Independent Variable – variable that causes a change in another variable Dependent Variable – changes based on the outcome / action of an independent variable Positivist Sociology Correlation A relationship in which two or more variable change together Ice Cream Sales Crime Positivist Sociology Spurious Correlation Correlation Causation Positivist Sociology Summer Ice Cream Sales Crime Positivist Sociology Objectivity Personal neutrality in conducting research Value - Free Remain Objective without passing judgement! Replication Repetition of research by other investigators Positivist Sociology Limitations to Social scientific research Human behavior = too complex/unpredictable to apply general assumptions to individual behaviors Researcher, or research equipment may affect the behavior of the subjects/behavior being studied Social institutions adapt to their place and time, and may not always be the exact same Social Researchers are human and will inevitably carry a bias Remember that often; no finding IS a findings. Inability to refute the Null Hypothesis. Research can be affected by funding, politics, media, publishers, and laws . Interpretive Sociology The study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world. Interpretations Peoples understanding of actions and surroundings Reality is subjective Qualitative By interactions with people, subjects and how they make sense of everyday lives Interpretive Sociology Max Weber (Veber) Verstehen (Fair-shtay-in) Understanding: why people do what they do Critical Sociology The study of society that focuses on the need for social change How Does Society Work? Should Society Exist in it’s Present Form? Why Can’t Society Have Less Inequality? Critical Sociology Critical Sociology Activist Approach Gender and Research Gender: the personal traits and social positions that persons of society attach to being female or male Gender and Research Androcentricity Overgerneralizing Gender Blindness Double Standards Interference Research Ethics American Sociological Association (ASA) Must be skillful and fair minded Must disclose research findings Must make findings available Must not harm subjects Must provide privacy Must provide informed consent Must reveal sources of funding Institutional Review Board (IRB) Research Methods Systematic Plan for doing research Hypothesis: A statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables If – then statements Experiment: A research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions Research Methods The Experiment 1. Identify independent and dependent variable 2. Measure initial value of dependent variable 3. Expose the dependent variable to the independent variable 4. Measure the dependent variable again to see what change, if any, took place If expected change occurred the experiment substantiates the hypothesis: if not, the hypothesis must be modified Research Methods Experimental Group vs. Control Group Research Methods The Hawthorne Effect A change in subjects behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied Research Methodology Stanford County Prison Research Methodology Survey Research : a method in which subjects respond to a series of statement, questions, questionnaire, or in an interview Population: people who are the focus of research Sample: a part of a population that represents the whole Research Methodology Questionnaire Interview Research Methodology Participant Observation: research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities Research Methodology Using available data Meta-analysis Data synthesis Meta Regression Limitations No control over existing bias Data may only partially fit needs Research Methodology Building theory upon facts Inductive logical thought Reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory Deductive logical thought Reasoning that transforms specific hypotheses suitable for testing Putting it all together 1. What is your topic? Putting it all together 2. What have others already learned ? Putting it all together 3. What, exactly, are your questions? Putting it all together 4. What will you need to carry out research? Putting it all together 5. Are there ethical concerns? Putting it all together 6. What method will you use? Putting it all together 7. How will you record data? Putting it all together 8. What do the data tell you ? Putting it all together 9. What are your conclusions? Putting it all together 10. How can you share what you’ve learned? Bringing Research Data to Life Ticket to Class Activity : Advertisement with Statistics Use sociological perspective to put a twist on your advertisement with statistics Statistics Statistics Statistics consists of a body of methods for collecting and analyzing Goal of Statistics is to gain an understanding from Data Statistics Qualitative vs Quantitative Qualitative: relating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity. Size, shape, color, texture, etc. Expressed by frequency distributions or descriptive writings Quantitative: Explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically based methods Expressed by graphs, matrices Statistics Normal Distributions Bell-Shaped U-Shaped Skewed right or left Statistics Central Tendencies Mean Median Mode Range Statistics Outliers Statistics Deviations Statistics Issues with statistics Innumeracy Apples to Oranges Sample size Mangling numbers Next Class Tuesday, June 16th Assignment: Read chapters 4-7 Your choice one of the below (Due on Thursday June 18 th) : 1. Violate a social norm in your everyday life (legally) and write a summary on what you did, how you felt, and others reactions. 2. Do you present a different self to various others such as friends, professors, coworkers, or parents? If so explain how you act differently and why? Papers should be two pages, double spaced. ...
View Full Document

  • Winter '12
  • june jacobs
  • Sociology, Anatomy, social scientific research, Positivist Sociology

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern