PGY 206 Exam 2 Notes - PGY 206 Endocrine System Types of...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
PGY 206 Endocrine System Types of Endocrine Communication Autocrine Paracrine: adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets Endocrine Neuroendocrine: hypothalamic hormones that regular the anterior pituitary Endocrine Glands and Hormones Secrete biologically active molecules into blood - Lacks ducts Carry hormones to target cells that contain specific receptor proteins for that hormone Target cells can respond in a specific fashion General Functions of the Endocrine System Maintain homeostasis of internal environment - Plasma (glucose, calcium) Adaptation in changes in external environment - Response to stress (injury, danger, psychological/emotional stress, temperature) in many hormones – plasma (epinephrine)
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Control of many processes in multiple tissues requiring coordination of complex events at the whole body level - Ion and fluid balance – ADH and aldosterone (renal section) - Energy metabolism – fuel storage and utilization – insulin, glucagon, thyroid hormones, and others - Digestion – (GI section) - Growth and development – GH, TH, etc. - Reproduction – sex hormones Endocrine System – major communicative/integrative system Nervous System Endocrine System Functional unit Neuron Gland cell Chemical messenger Neurotransmitter Hormone Mode of transmission Action potentials Circulation Reaction time Milliseconds - seconds Minutes - days Target cell must have specific receptor proteins Combination of regulatory molecule with its receptor proteins must cause a specific sequence of changes There must be a mechanism to quickly turn off the action of a regulator Hormones Overview “hormone” in Greek means “to excite” and sometimes they inhibit Hormones are chemical messengers which - Are secreted by specific cells - Are released into the bloodstream in very small amounts - Communicate information to their target cells to regulate, not initiate, functions in their target cells. For example, they can either increase or decrease a given function Hormones exert their effects at the cellular level by regulating cell division, differentiation, activation, activation, apoptosis, motility, secretion and nutrition uptake At the molecular level hormones regulate : gene transcription, protein synthesis and degradation, enzyme activity and protein: protein interactions A single gland may secrete multiple hormones such as thyroid, pancreas, anterior pituitary gland A hormone may be secreted by more than one gland such as somatostasin Life Cycle of a Hormone All actions of hormones are mediated by receptors Receptors: have high affinity binding sites for hormones - Confer specificity on the endocrine system because numerous hormones circulate in the bloodstream and each can access all cells
Image of page 2
Chemical Classifications of Hormones Hormones can be divided into - Polar (hydrophilic , water soluble): glycoproteins can’t be taken orally; for example insulin is a hormone that must be injected - Nonpolar (lipophilic
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern