ANA 209 Exam 1 Study Guide

ANA 209 Exam 1 Study Guide - ANA 209 Exam 1 Study Guide...

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ANA 209 Exam 1 Study Guide Tissues I Tissues: group of cells of similar structure that perform a common function 4 primary tissues: 1) Epithelial 2) Connective 3) Muscle 4) Nervous Cells Varying types, shapes, and numbers All have interrelations Intercellular Substances (Matrix) Types of intercellular substances 1) Amorphous ground substance Affinity for water (swells) Varies in ‘form’ from a stiff gel to a thin solid Provides support for cells suspended in it Acts as a diffusion medium 2) Fibrous material Collagen Reticular Elastic 3) Fluids Tissue fluid helps diffusion of oxygen and nutrients/wastes Arises from blood vessels specifically post-capillary venules Epithelial Characteristics Covers surfaces, lines cavities, forms glands Closely opposed cells at a free surface (no cellular or extracellular elements here), exhibits polarity and membrane specializations Anchored to connective tissue by basement membrane (sheet-like layer of intercellular material, mainly functions in support) and to each other by tight junctions The epithelium of mucous membranes overlies a thin layer of areolar CT, blood vessels, and nerves called the lamina propria Replicate often
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Avascular, tightly packed, with little intracellular material Functions of Epithelium Secretion Sensory reception Absorption Excretion Barrier Epithelium Classifications Cell number 1) Simple (1 layer) a. Simple squamous: single layer of flat scale-like cells Cells fit tightly together Easily damaged Found where diffusion takes place Alveoli, capillaries b. Simple cuboidal: single layer of cube shaped cells Mainly functions in secretion and absorption Kidney tubules, salivary glands, ducts of thyroid, pancreas, liver 2) Stratified (multiple layers) a. Stratified squamous Cell division occurs in lower layers and pushes outward as outer layers are lost Found in areas of heavy wear and tear: epidermis, mouth, anus, esophagus, vagina b. Transitional: appearance of cells changes with tension Found lining urinary system, especially the bladder When empty numerous layers can be seen, when full few layers are seen 3) Pseudostratified (1 layer which appears to be multiple because nuclei at different levels in the deeper half of epithelium) a. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar: appears to be several layers but is actually one in which the cell nuclei are at different levels Found lining upper portions of respiratory tract and oviducts Contains numerous goblet cells which secrete mucous that is moved along by cilia Cell shape 1) Squamous Scale-like Width and depth greater than height Shape analogous to a fried egg
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Functions : allows rapid transport of substances across membranes and secretes serous fluid 2) Cuboidal Width, depth, and height approximately equal Centrally placed nuclei Can contain a brush border of microvilli Functions
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