ANA 209 Exam 3 Lecture Notes

ANA 209 Exam 3 Lecture Notes - ANA 209 Exam 3 Lecture Notes...

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ANA 209 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Nervous System I Organization of the Nervous System The Central Nervous System (CNS) is found housed with the components of the axial skeleton and has 2 main parts: brain and spinal cord The CNS is connected to the periphery of the body by cranial and spinal nerves that comprise the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). With respect to the motor division of the PNS, it’s composed of: - Cranial nerves Somatic fibers: connecting the brain to the skin and skeletal muscle fibers Autonomic (visceromotor) fibers: connecting the brain to the viscera - Spinal nerves Somatic fibers: connecting the spinal cord to the skin and skeletal muscle fibers Autonomic (visceromotor) fibers: connecting the spinal cord to the viscera Within the brain and spinal cord lie cell bodies responsible for autonomic innervation of the skin and viscera (ANS). The main features of the ANS are: - Controls gland secretion and smooth/cardiac muscle contraction - Nerve cell bodies are found in CNS Sympathetic (thoracolumbar) Parasympathetic (cranio-sacral) - Processes of these cells from “nerves” and are found in the PNS Functions of the Nervous System
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Sensory (afferent) - Internal and external monitoring of changes in heat, touch, CO 2 , light Integrative (association neurons) - Nerve impulses (signals) are brought together - Perception, memory, thought, intelligence, instinctual behavior - Coordinate and control all body activities using motor system Motor (efferent) - From CNS PNS effector (Ex: muscles and glands) Anatomy of the Neuron Neuron (nerve cell) is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system Neuroglial cells of the CNS are supporting cells of the neuron and act as physiological environment controllers as well as the connective tissue (CT) of the CNS. There’s no CT proper in CNS Has tremendous demand for oxygen and nutrients, therefore blood supply is critical for survival No mitosis (except hippocampal neurons), all neurons are formed before birth Continuously forms new and remodels old connections, therefore continuously synthesizing new proteins and other molecules Communicates by releasing electrically and chemically Chemical signals = neurotransmitters, these then stimulate muscle or other nerve cells Must receive stimulation to develop and maintain connections to survive Neurotrophic factors: molecules that neurons take up from surrounding neurons or supporting cells Cell body (perikaryon/soma) exhibits a prominent nucleus and numerous organelles Single axon carrying impulses away from the cell body Dendrite(s) bringing impulses into the cell body Neuron Cell Body Nissl substance (bodies): found filling the majority of the cell body. They’re membranous sacs of rER and associated free ribosomes Axon hillock: entryway into the axon acting as a funnel for cytoskeletal elements (neurotubules and neurofilaments) entering the axon thus keeping Nissl substance out.
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