PSY 223 Exam 2 Study Guide

PSY 223 Exam 2 Study Guide - PSY 223 Exam 2 Study Guide...

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PSY 223 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 8 Growth Patterns Each year of early childhood, well-nourished children gain about 4.5 pounds or 2 kg and grow about 3 inches or 7 cm. However, there are environmental and cultural factors for height and weight in kids. By age 6, the average child in a developed nation: - Weights 40-50 pounds (18-22 kg) - At least 3.5 feet tall (over 100 cm) - Looks lean, not chubby (ages 5-6 are lowest in body fat) - Has adult-like body proportions (legs constitute about half the total height) Nutrition Preschool children sometimes suffer from poor nutrition for insufficient appetite with unhealthy food. Pediatricians have discovered that parents of young kids believe that relatively thin kids are less healthy than relatively heavy ones. This false belief eventually led to overfeeding. Overfed children eventually become overweight adults. Though most kids in developed nations have sufficient calories, they don’t always obtain sufficient iron, zinc, or calcium. Too much sugar and too little fiber causes tooth decay, which is the most common disease for young kids. Though their “baby teeth” are replaceable, tooth decay can cause jaw malformation, chewing difficulties, and speech problems. Brain Structure and Development prefrontal cortex: performs brain’s “executive functions” such as planning, selecting, and coordinating thoughts
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Auditory cortex (on temporal lobe): conscious processing of sounds Amygdala: neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotion Hippocampus: structure in the limbic system linked to memory Corpus callosum: axon fibers connecting 2 cerebral hemispheres Thalamus: relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex Hypothalamus: controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and rewards Pituitary: master endocrine gland Visual cortex (on occipital lobe): conscious processing of sights Spinal cord: pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls simple reflexes Cerebellum: coordinates voluntary movement and balance Cerebral cortex (outer layers): ultimate control and information-processing center Speed of Thought Myelination: process by which axons become coated with myelin (white matter of the brain), a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
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- Though myelination continues for decades, the effects are especially apparent in early childhood. The brain areas that show greatest early myelination are the motor and sensory areas. Brain’s Connected Hemispheres Corpus callosum: long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication in between them.
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