PSY 223 Exam 3 Textbook Notes

PSY 223 Exam 3 Textbook Notes - PSY 223 Exam 3 Textbook...

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PSY 223 Exam 3 Textbook Notes Chapter 14 Puberty Begins Puberty: time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development; usually lasts 3-5 years; many more years are required to achieve psychosocial maturity Menarche: girl’s first menstrual period signaling that she has begun ovulation. Pregnancy is biologically possible, but ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche Spermache: boy’s first ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. May occur during sleep in a “wet dream” or via direct stimulation. Hormone: organic chemical substance that’s produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function Pituitary: gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and that control other glands among them the adrenal and sex glands Adrenal glands: 2 glands located above the kidneys that produce hormones HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis: sequence of hormone production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands Gonads: paired sex glands (ovaries in females, testicles in males) that produce hormones and gametes HPG (hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad) axis: sequence of hormone production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to gonads Estradiol: sex hormone considered as the chief estrogen produced by females much more than males Testosterone: sex hormone best known of the androgens (male hormones); secreted in far greater amounts by males than females Circadian rhythm: day-night cycle of biological activity that occurs approximately every 24 hours Secular trend: long term upward or downward direction of a certain set of statistical measurements as opposed to a smaller, shorter cyclical variation. As because of improved nutrition and medical care, kids have tended to reach their adult height earlier and their adult height has increased Leptin: hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty. Leptin levels increase during childhood and peak at around age 12
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Growth and Nutrition Growth spurt: sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty. Each body part increases in size on a schedule Body image: person’s idea of how his/her body looks Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by self-starvation. Affected individuals voluntarily under-eat and often over-exercise, depriving their vital organs or nutrition Bulimia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually by induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives.
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