Hinnote3 - 222 Unit3 Daily Life In this chapter you will...

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Unformatted text preview: 222 Unit3 Daily Life In this chapter you will learn how to sequence actions in a description of your daily routine. You will also learn additional structures that are useful for describing routine activities. Uses of the Infinitive Citation Form As explained earlier, the infinitive translates as ‘to V’ and is the citation form of the verb—the form that is listed in dictionaries and used when talking about verbs. For example, the infini- tive would be the appropriate form to use when asking what a verb means or asking how it is spelled. arr Easier an El? What does “zahalnd” mean? The Infinitive as a Verbal Noun The Hindi infinitive also functions as a verbal noun, or gerund, which in English has the form V-ing (e.g, running, swimming, traveling). As a verbal noun, the infinitive functions as a regu— lar masculine type 1 noun; its final vowel changes from —d to —e in the oblique case. The infinitive as the object of a postposition: The infinitive, functioning as a verbal noun, may become the object of a postposition such as ke bad or se pahle. V—ne ke bad after V-ing (e. g. after getting up, afier eating) V—ne se pahle before V—ing (e.g. before starting, before leaving) 3673’ 3? HIE after getting up Vigil? $ HIE after arriving W 1}! W before going to sleep GIFT iii T6? before leaving FIETFT 95 EI'I'd' if FINE” WT {I After bathing, I have breakfast. if 311%? CI? W Gil?) ll 113?) 137:5 Iusually have a cup of coffee before going afiq cg f j, to class. E'ZIT FIJI WIT Hi? 21' W 83) 21;]? Do you always watch TV before going a"? to sleep? ER' 3? EIIZ.’ if a? BIRTH After getting home, I rest fora little while. W?“ {I Chapter 14 || My Daily Routine2 223 Vocabulary 1 a; 34mm ke aldvc? (ppn.) apart from a? m V ke bajéy (ppn.) instead of 3'? EH? ke bad (ppn.) after Ea? 313T xatm hand (v.i.) to end W khulnd (v.i.) to open m fhz'k (adv.) ke _thz‘k bad, ‘right after,’ se thikpahle, ‘right before gaRT dubdrd again EfiET dhoné (v.t.) to wash WITH batch (f.) conversation Tam rakhnci (v.t.) to put, to place; to keep {I}? @FIT s’urfi hand (v.i.) to begin, to start 3 1:13? se pahle (ppn.) before Days of the Week WIT somvér (m.) Monday 3113mm? mangalvc‘zr (m.) Tuesday EH3]? budhvdr (m.) Wednesday W guruvfir (m.) Thursday WEIR brihaspativdr (m.) Thursday QM s’ukrvér (m.) Friday 3% janivfir (m.) Saturday (137211? ravivdr (m.) Sunday 383]? itvcir (m.) Sunday 224 Unit3 Daily Life Exercise 1 5" G Read aloud and translate the passage below. fifiawwfimilsafiaammifiwmmammmm m§|mmafla$mfiafimi|mafimamfiafivfiazfi§r nglmmmaaawmaammammfimm mgmmmammamwammam—mmm $mfiafiémmémmafifimwmmélfwmil mefirfimfigfimmél Interview a classmate and find out what his or her daily routine is. Begin by asking when your classmate wakes up and continue in chronological order. After every sentence ask, what do you do after V—ing? When being interviewed, answer all questions in complete sentences us— ing the same structure. After going through one partner’s entire daily routine, switch roles and repeat. 331W agingagmlfirafim's’r? E.fiHI3'E§—E5WBB?IT€I $.367T37EIIEFETWWE’F? um$mfim§| mmazafia—‘mmT-TE’I‘? Exercise 3 Write a paragraph on your daily routine. Begin with the time you wake up and then proceed in chronological order, using V—ne ke had, us ke bdd, and phir to sequence the actions. Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are words such as myselfi yourselfi himselfi ourselves, as well as my own, your own, his own, etc. Reflexive pronouns are used to replace the second mention of the sub— ject within a single clause. Chapter 14 [I My Daily RoutineZ 225 For example, consider the English sentence, john cut himself. The subject of the sentence is Iohn, and John is also the object of the verb. Instead of saying John cut John, we use the reflex- ive pronoun himself to replace the second mention of john since it occurs within the same clause. Similarly, rather than saying I bought a cake for me, we say I bought a cake for myself The subject of the sentence is l and it is mentioned a second time in the same clause. As you will see, many of Hindi’s rules regarding reflexive pronoun use are similar to English ones. However, there are also a few key differences that are important to understand. Using the Reflexive Pronouns xud and apna‘ Hindi’s main reflexive pronouns are g3, xua’, m, svayam, and 3itlFIT, apna. The words xua’ and svayam are identical in the contexts in which they are used, though svayam can be con— sidered slightly more formal. In the explanation that follows, we will assume that xud and svayam are stylistic variants of the same reflexive pronoun. The word apna differs from xud/ svayam in how it is used. Placing special emphasis on the subject: As in English, a reflexive pronoun can be used to place special emphasis on the subject of a sentence (e.g. You yourself know better than anyone else. I myself am to blame). The reflexive pronoun xud/svayam is appropriate in this use. if l? Halal? Imyself am responsible. FE? m El 1%; W Ell You yourself know it’s not like that. a? all m ii % IT'S" W til He himself acknowledges that it isn’t true. Replacing the second mention of the subject (non—possessive): In English a reflexive pro— noun is also appropriate when the subject of a sentence is mentioned a second time in the same clause and the second mention occurs as the object of a preposition (e.g. The executive gave a bonus to himself Why don’t you believe in yourself?). Hindi reflexives have a similar use. When the second mention of the subject occurs as the object of a postposition other than ka/ke/ki, either xud/svayam or apna may be used. a? ET ET aha W Fifi? He considers himself an expert on “Hm %] everything. as SW? 337 ST £5131. EFT Fifi? He considers himself an expert on WET g1 everything. if aft 3m? 341m WET-[T Iconsider myself an ordinary person. 3? 3W? EFT 3W? 3W WET a Iconsider myself an ordinary person. A variant of apna, apne up, can also be used in this context. if 3-H? 3W ET 3113 m WT Iconsider myself an ordinary person. 226 Unit3 Daily Life Replacing the second mention of the subject (possessive): Hindi requires an additional use of reflexive pronouns that is not found in English. When the second mention of the subject occurs as a possessive pronoun, the pronoun is replaced with apnd. In other words, in the Hindi equivalents of sentences such as “Are you at your house,” and “He lives with his parents," the underlined words, "your" and “his,” are expressed using the word apnd. EF€IT FIE 3m UT CIT Are you at your house? if 3111? film fir «Weir Eff EFF? mar Iwork in my father’s company. a? 31115? BTW-WET a; "STU IE?“ 31 He lives with his parents. Note that in the first two of the preceding examples a non—reflexive possessive pronoun would be ungrammatical, whereas in the third sentence a non—reflexive pronoun produces a differ— ent meaning. Compare with the following sentence: a? m HGT-m 3‘7 m {gal g1 He lives with his (somebody else’s) parents. While apmi is more natural in this use, it is also possible to use xud/svayam in this context, particularly when the use is emphatic. a3 EFT m EST QQW a He is his own worst enemy. The reflexive apna’ also replaces possessive pronouns being used with compound postposi- tions that have ke or kz' as the initial element. {El 21—6" M 3m W Hall Keep this book with you. (0pm? + ke 17633 —> apne pals) Points of Caution When Using Reflexive Words Accurately identifying the subject is essential. The subject of a sentence need not be an individual noun; it may be a group of nouns joined together by a conjunction such as am; ‘and.’ The subjects in the following examples have been underlined: mm W UT %| He and his family are at home. as am? when $ an: at CI? a He is at home with his family. W gm EV! Both my brother and I are doctors. fl SWIFT 311? a? ~\EiTg-T U3? él 39?? 35f m I_work with my brother in the same office. W?“ {I Chapter 14 [I My DailyRoutineZ 227 The subject and its second mention must occur in the same clause. For example, in the following sentence the subject is mentioned twice in the same sentence, but the second men— tion occurs in a new clause. 38' WT E“ % m 311% W He says that his brother is ill. The subject need not be explicitly stated. It might merely be understood. For example, more often than not, the subject of an imperative verb (Lip, tum, or til) is left unstated. (3TH) 3mm W WI (You) take care of yourself. (8333f) 3H?” m FTFF 55m (You) clean your room. Additional Related Words and Expressions The phrase ek—dzlsre means ‘each other? ii 3-TlT 31W air 3ib€§l “ER—6' 31W?) Akbar and I know each other well. 635i QT am $13 We talk to each other daily. The phrases apne dp, apne se, and xud—baxud have the meaning of ‘on its/their own’ (without outside interference). 2|?" m WW 3-]??? if / 3N?) 3-iTCi / This door always opens by itself. W %‘I Vocabulary 2 HEW-IT apnfi one’s own (reflexive) 3m?) 13f, apne se, xud—baxud on one’s own, without outside influence DEF-{Ht ek—dfisre each other (reciprocal) WT aisd like this, of this type i3? ki (conj .) that $33, xud, svayam self (reflexive) m khelné (v.t.) to play Fifi" gall— (f.) lane, alley 33f jeb (f.) pocket W, W daftar, kdryc‘zlay (m.) office 228 Unit3 Daily Life all? dcit (m.) tooth, teeth Emil]? bimdr ill, sick 34am mahfnd (m.) month 311'??? mdhir expert a?” vaisa‘ like that, of that type m sac true Wm saptéhdnt (m.) weekend FITS}? WT safkama (v.t.) to clean m, a‘ér sc‘zl, vars (m.) year gFFEIT, W haftd, saptdh (m.) week Notes: o aisd and vaisd are related to the question word kaisd, ‘how, of what type.’ c The word ki differs in a few important respects from the English word ‘that.’ Please refer to chapter 35 for details. Choose the correct forms from the options given and translate the resulting sentences. In some sentences, both forms might be possible. When this is the case, give both possible translations. {fin—gram (m/m)fiawm€| Q-flfi—(WIW)WHT33TW®€WWWW%? 3.6!? (mat/mnnéaamfifiwfim swam?!in (mas/marmamafirfimfirafimmét? seem (m/mflnétfitwafi Layman-twain (amt/ammuniartrfiamma‘? b.6133}? (m/m)mmmma afimfifitfiiw-a’rafi (flit/3mmfllé-afif’ffiifiwil KW (W/m)ma’rl eo. (fit/mnnéatmamgtrl *Note that the word that occurs here must be oblique. Destinations of verbs of motion take the oblique case without an explicitly stated postposition. Sometimes it is said that an implied postposition, or “ghostposition,” is present. In this sentence, the word ghar is thus oblique and any modifiers must agree with it in case (i.e., in being direct vs.oblique). Chapter 14 My Daily RoutineZ 229 Exercise 5 Translate these English sentences into Hindi. Before translating each sentence, determine whether or not apnd is appropriate. He is with his parents at home. He and his parents are at home. I meet my friends often for coffee. My friends and I meet often for coffee. I clean my room only once a month. I see my brother often, but I only see my parents once in a while. Do you talk to your grandparents often? He and his family live near my house. WPONSfiSJ‘PSDF-‘l‘ He lives with his parents. p—i .0 Tell me your name. Olga! Take turns asking and answering the following questions with a partner: 2.§nmfim-fimfinafilmfimanfifiém agarfisrfifimfianmfiraiawma’r? 3 @W/Wfimwmmifififl? s.§wmfi$q§2gaififiamafiéammm%? agflmmmfifimfianwmw a wwaaré—afifiwfhfififi? ' l9 gfimfim-afififimfiaémmfia? 230 Unit3 Daily Life Java is a housewife with two children. A relative of hers is going to be watching her children for a few days and Iaya has left the relative a voicemail explaining What her kids do every day. To help the babysitter, listen to the voicemail and make a schedule of what her kids do. W Emmi mwmmexmafimamemmafimmfima mmm§|ammmafimlfimnmmmm§|ma$ mafiamgtafitafizfiaafifiméflafiafitmafiiézmafi ammmammammmammmwmfiaa mwfiwamm$mwmfifim§lwmmam mmmfig‘lmmammmsmma ...
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