Hinnote2 - 246 Unit3 Daily Life In this chapter you will...

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Unformatted text preview: 246 Unit3 Daily Life In this chapter you will learn how to describe the current weather as well as the overall climate of a region. Describing the Weather In English, many weather—related expressions follow a similar pattern: It is sunny today. It is cold today. It is hot today. In Hindi, many of the same expressions follow a slightly different pattern: 31131" 113 m It is sunny today. (“There is sunshine today”) I l 3-113 a??? It is cold today. (“There is cold weather today”) 3-Tl'5rl' afifi' It is hot today. (“There is hot weather today”) ? As the examples show, the structure of these sentences is actually the there is—type sentences encountered in chapter 3. The weather—related words in these sentences are nouns rather than adjectives. €13 sunshine HEW cold weather, cold I]??? hot weather, warmth, heat In general, weather—related expressions that use the word ‘it’ in English are phrased differently in Hindi. For example, note how the verbs for ‘to rain’ and ‘to snow’ are used in Hindi. WI 673T to rain at}? EISFIT to snow aTfi'QT 3T 1%.)" It’s raining. “Rain is happening.” 33% E13 2% It’s snowing. “Snow is falling.” Chapter 16 || Weather and Climate 247 Vocabulary 1 Weather W kuhrd (m.) fog m xarfib bad, gone bad, in a bad state Wall" garm (adj.) hot E m garmz‘ (f.) hot/warm weather I W jalvdyu (f.) climate oe, 33$ thand, fhandak (f.) cold weather; cold o'er Ihandd (adj.) cold i 219?]? tfiffin (m.) storm (tfifEin Ema—z, for a storm to come, for there i to be a storm) 31? tez sharp, strong Eff dhfip (f.) sunshine mm barsdt (f.) rains, rainy season EFF-[5 barf (f) snow (barf parmi, to snow) 6136f bc‘zdal (m.) cloud ! E Wu alsl‘r bdn's', varsd (r) rain (bdris' hand, to rain) mm mausam (m.) weather, season mil sarcfi (f.) cold weather 248 Unit3 Daily Life Weather (cont'd) Additional Words W W,afi?r sdf suhévnd, suhdnd sfimj (111.) I1an dsmcin (m) dharti, dein (f.) clean, clear pleasant $1111 wind; air sky land, earth Chapter 16 || Weather and Climate 249 2. mwa Q. agfiufifi 3. afar 6T 13%| 8. 319-71" 1 Us. mi? ‘13 ET EH \ :“ié‘;% a. 356v ELI % CID 250 Unit3 Daily Life Exercise 2 Look up the weather in five world cities and write sentences describing the current weather in each. Describing the Climate Consider the following English sentences: It’s sunny today in San Diego. It’s generally sunny in San Diego. These sentences have the same basic structure: It’s sunny in San Diego. The different time frame in each is expressed through the insertion of the additional words, today and generally, which indicate whether the statement applies to current conditions or general conditions. Hindi possesses words corresponding to today and generally, and they are employed in a manner similar to English. However, distinctions between current and general conditions are also expressed through grammatical distinctions in Hindi. Indicating Current versus General Conditions with hand The forms for describing conditions at the present moment in time have already been intro— duced. These are the simple present forms of the verb hand. 3“? Film? Hg? W The weather is very pleasant today. EET gig—(T m It’s really hot here (at this moment). Statements about general conditions are expressed by using hand in the present habitual verb tense. WEST $T all??? W ill?“ ‘5‘] The weather in the mountains is pleasant (in general) W 3% a??? WT m 2%] It rains a lot in Seattle. While the focus of this chapter is on distinguishing between current weather and overall climate, the distinction between simple present and present habitual forms of hand must be observed in any context in which a distinction is possible between current and general conditions. Vocabulary 2 Seasons i w 5'13! Months of the Year 3mm 61mm garmiyfi (f.p1.) jam (m.) pat/ha!" (m) basam‘ (m.) mausam (m.) sardiyc? (f.pl.) mam—m? (m.) janvarl— (f.) farvarz— (f) mdrc (m.) aprail (m.) maz— (f.) jfin (m.) julfif (f.) agast (m.) sitambar (m.) aktszar/akmbar (m.) navambar disambar (m.) Chapter 16 || Weather and Climate 251 hot season, summer Winter fall spring season; weather cold season, Winter month January February March April May June July August September October November December 252 Unit3 Daily Life Additional Words X a? 8311?!" X ke daurdn during X 3TH, ant, fixir (m.) end m xdlz' empty, available; free, not occupied . WET-IT ginnc? (v.t.) to count ‘1 tier ghantc'z (m.) hour @‘apf chuzfi (f.) break, day off, weekend, holiday, vacation time FIT to so, then; indeed [emphatic particle] HUI-T... na...na... neither. . .nor. .. CERT parnd (v.i.) to fall, to befall time minal (m.) minute 3m, Fa éatc‘zbdz‘, sadl— (f.) century 33%? s'urzZ (m.) beginning Notes: . The word to can also express the notion that a statement is in contrast or at variance with a previous statement. For example: sab lag time udds kyé hm"? mat~ to x145 hfi, ‘Why is everybody so melancholy. I’m happy? Chapter 16 Weather and Climate 253 Read aloud and translate. {mamfiamfiamfiamfifiafimaawaaéamagfimfi marmammwwafiammamammm. sin—madama.w§mtamfiafiaqsafi%?a.WW-mafiafim1%? b.mfimmfifiwwmfimmfi?c.ma§aa§w%sfifimat mfiawwaffifimlsinfifigfiifiasmmmwmfiveo.m Wfiamamma,wmawmammwmma *W FIT, ‘the same’ Exercise 4 Translate into Hindi. It’s usually rainy in December. It's generally cold from October to March. What is the weather like (“How is the weather") in your city in February? Is your country’s weather nice? What is Lucknow’s weather like in October? In which month is the weather best in Delhi? Where are you usually at 12:00? 90>‘9\9‘!4>.WN?‘ I’m usually in class at that time. Olga Role Play Role 1: You are planning to spend next year in Varanasi studying Hindi. You don’t know much about the city, so you have decided to ask a friend of yours who is from there about its weather. Your partner will play the role of your friend. Ask him about Varanasi’s weather in each month of the year and note his responses. When you are finished, verbally review what you have noted with your partner. WOT mamwmamma? 254 Unit3 Daily Life Role 2: You used to live in Varanasi and a friend of yours who is planning to study there next year wants to learn about its weather throughout the year. Answer your partner’s questions based on the information given below. Answer in complete sentences. WW,HWWHWW éaaTfiar mfigfimfi,fiwfiwmfi Mariam?! Chapter 16 || Weather and Climate 255 —:@ Listen to the audio passage and note what the weather is like throughout the year in northern India. Pair up with a partner and discuss what you think the best months are for visiting the region. 256 Unit3 Daily Life memmmfiwmfimw¢mmfimfi m,m,mmgm,mmm¢mmmm W%lmwmfiwmfifim%lfia€$m mwmmfimfimfifiwafifi$afifimwmfi WE‘lmwmsfitmfimmwmfilm $3iafiafimi$rxfiawafimfifiémagfiaamfiq§fi€ mmmfimemqumaw,m,mm asafirfiamaasrmwwmflafifimmfiaamrm% wwafimfimfimmmfiamm Wifamamafil *finfr, ‘which.’ Exercise 7 Using the previous audio passage as a model, describe the climate of your home region. ...
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