HInnote1 - 200 Unit3 Daily Life In this chapter you will...

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Unformatted text preview: 200 Unit3 Daily Life \ In this chapter you will learn how to describe your daily routine. You will also learn the basics of telling time and how to provide general information about yourself such as where you live and what you study or do for a living. Here are some examples of things you will be able to say after completing this chapter: I wake up every morning at 7:00. ifme aamgl if W W fir W 3% $133!" W EU] Iworkinabookstore. if 213 if as? a 3416 as} am am m a Iwork everyday from 2:00 to 8:00. Saying Where You Live and Work The verb form that is used to state where people live and what they do for a living is the pre- sent habitual verb tense. The Present Habitual Verb Tense The present habitual verb tense is used for general statements of fact holding true in the pre- . sent period of time (e.g. 1 live in Chicago). It is also used to describe actions and events that occur routinely or habitually in the present (e.g. [get up every day at 7:00). Formation: The present habitual is formed by adding two elements to the verb stem (the infinitive minus the -nd suffix). The suffix —td/—te/—tz' is added directly to the verb stem and agrees with the subject in gender and number like an adjective. The —td/—te/—tz' portion of flu: verb is followed by the appropriate simple present form of the verb hand—agreeing with the subject in person and number—which is written separately. This formula summarizes the formation of the present habitual: V + -t¢i/-te/-tz' + hand (simple present) Here is the full conjugation of the verb jdnd, ‘to go,’ in the present habitual. The structure (1“- this table is the straightforward result of combining two tables learned earlier: the variabh, adjective endings, and simple present forms of the verb hand. Chapter 13 || My Daily Routinel 201 Habitual Verb Tense singular plural 1 if TriTElT lgo. e; EITHT it You go. 2 You go. 3 3'6 GiTEIT ’5‘ He/it goes. They go. 33f Elli-"ii I go. We go. El ETElT (a? You go. F33? Gil—(ff ET You go. 2 3m EllFfi You go. 3 GET GTE“ % She/it goes. 3 311247 They go. 2- - ; ham jciti hat" is acceptable, females using the ‘we’ form generally use the masculine plural form (ham “ hat”) in practice. - are some examples of the present habitual being used to state where people live and 331T WW? li’lafilall ii 16?” Ell My family lives in Chicago. ‘3 R; W Bil W l (m.) live in New York. Fifi 21W fl WT 37? What do you (f.) study at the university? If m trash {1 1(f.) study Hindi. I m fiT-IT '33? fi W W %| My father works at abank. W aim W W mar What does your friend do for a living? Please see later in the chapter for examples of the present habitual in use to describe daily routines. Negation: When a present habitual verb is negated, the auxiliary verb hand is generally dropped. 3? rhea ml 1 don’t eat meat. 3:: arm 2m a-é‘r men We don’t drink. 202 Unit3 Daily Life However, if the subject of a sentence is feminine and plural, and hand is dropped, the —tz‘ end— ing becomes nasalized (41°). 31%“ fiff 357% 3TH FORT-ill My sisters don’t listen to anything I say. m Fill My mom doesn’t understand English. Additional Uses of the Present Habitual Impersonal sentences: The masculine third—person plural form of the present habitual with— out a subject is used to produce impersonal sentences in Hindi. Impersonal sentences in Eng- lish generally have “you” or “one” as their subject (e.g. How do you do this or How does one do this?). W m I? W W How do you write this in Hindi? 3—9. lggal it w m How do you say this in Hindi? Expressing immediate intentions: The present habitual can also be used to describe an ac- tion that one intends to perform in the immediate future. When the present habitual is used in this sense, the subject is often I or we. This use is frequently signaled by one of the expres— sions abhz‘, ‘right now,’ or collie, literally, ‘let’s go.’ 3? SETS-ff Edi-EU I’m coming right now. Elam, We ET? Ell Let’s have some ice cream. Vocabulary 1 Hiram arths'dstr (m) economics mm karmcdrl' employee m BRET kdm karnd (v.t.) to work; to do a task WET gam‘t (m) mathematics 13mm m'vc'zs (m) residence film naukar (m.) servant, employee a‘m’r naukrz' (f.) job tlE-Tfé' WT parhdz' karnc‘z (v.t.) to study m parhfinfi (v.t.) to teach Chapter 13 I] My Daily Routinel 203 ‘QQTT, m pes’é, vyavasdy (m) profession; occupation rahm? (v.i.) to live, reside Tim WET rajm'ti s'dstr (m.) political science tam: visay (m.) (academic) subject W sarkérz' governmental (sarkdr, f. ‘govemment’) Read aloud and translate the following sentences. Also note in each sentence whether the subject is male or female and what level of respect is being used. agnfiitsfimafimz—‘szmilagnfiiwefimsfifiaafiz WW€|9.§HWWWS.Z§T®HW§W|egfiwmmafim mafiammfi Listen to the profiles of the people in the audio clip and note the information that they share in the table. Q. minnammmafifimmmglfiqjfiafia$mmilfiafi WW?! 204 Unit3 Daily Life 3. mWnamgmflfiafiamfififimmmfimisfiwma: mammafimé’afimma s. W|fifim§|fisfitmmm§1fiifiafimélfifimzfi§|fim ammii 0;. Wimmmelfiqfifiamfiéfimmfiswwilfi 2mgr§|mqfimmmfil Mingle with your classmates and find out where each of them lives and what they study. Feel free to model your questions and answers on those in the previous activity. Interview a classmate and find out who is in his or her family, where each family member lives, and where they work. Describing Routine Activities The present habitual verb tense is also used to describe activities that one performs regularly or habitually. This verb tense is therefore appropriate when describing daily routines. Here are a few examples: m ET gag M 3m Ell Jameela gets up early every morning. a}? ENE? Efi aFi'ilT ER? What do you do every afternoon? if HT 3”?” 3%? 3mm WT a Igo home and relax. Vocabulary 2 Daily Routine Verbs 3TIFIT and (v.i.) to come 38m utc'zrnfi (V.t.) to take off (kapre mama, to get undressed) Chapter 13 H My DailyRoutinel 205 W / W kasrat / vydyém to exercise (kasrat, f. = vyéydm, m., exercise) m karnd WT khdm'i (v.t.) to eat; also, m., food (khénd khénd, to eat) STE-IT jdnd (V.i.) to go 33!?” calm? (V.i.) to move, go, accompany; to run, operate WT fahalnd (V.i.) to stroll 333?” daurné (V.i.) to run HEW-IT nahdm’i (V.i.) to bathe «FRET WT nés’tc'z karnd (v.t.) to have breakfast WW pakdnd (v.t.) to cook tI???” pahannc‘z (v.t.) to put on (kapre pahanné, to get dressed) qgflc’rfi pahficnd (V.i.) to arrive; to reach (somewhere) WT badalnd (v.t./v.i.) to change (kapre badalnd, to change clothes, get dressed) banana (v.t.) to make lagdnd (v.t.) to put on, apply to, attach to (par/3e) sonci (V.i.) to sleep (sojcind, to fall asleep, go to sleep) Time—Related Words W aksar often HINT-Tl? UT am taur par usually, generally kabhi—kabhdr once in a while kabhf—kabhz’ sometimes qarz'b (adv.) near, about (cf. taqrz‘ban, ‘approximately’) ke bad after jaldz' early; quickly (ialdz‘ me”, in a hurry) tak (ppn.) up till, until; by (time) (...se lekar...tak, fi‘om...to...) 206 Unit3 Daily Life Time—Related Words (cont'd) €133, turant,fauran FIT t0 EH din (m.) a? der (f.) aria? dopahar (f.) 5%? pahle m phir El? bar (f.) Ila rat (f.) 113, r02, rozcind Q1131 s’dm (f.) M, W samay, vaqt (m.) 1333 subah (f.) a El??? sepahle (ppn.) WIT hames'd 3T har Additional Words await QT xds taur par ear khel (m.) 'iITJ céy (f.) Emma? zyéddtar flaw dincaryd (f.) W paidal immediately so, then day a while, length of time; delay aflernoon (dopahar k0, in the afternoon) first; previously then; again time (i.e., one time, two times) night (rd! k0, at night) daily evening (s‘c'zm k0, in the evening) time morning, in the morning before always each, every especially, particularly game, sport tea most, mostly daily routine on foot, by foot Chapter 13 || My Daily Routinel 207 mile back (vdpas and, to come back; vdpasjdnd, to go back, return; vdpas dena/karnc'i, to give back, return) Notes: o There are some differences between verbs of motion in Hindi and English. The verb rind is used for movement towards the speaker/addressee from a distant place. The verb jdmi is used for movement away from the speaker/addressee, and therefore jdnd is also used for ‘to leave.’ The verb calmi, which basically means ‘to move,’ is used for ‘going/coming with’ or ‘accompanying’ the speaker/addressee. Compare: tum akele jdo, ‘Go by yourself,’ and mere sdth calo, ‘come with me.’ Another important point related to verbs of motion is that the destination of a verb of motion gener— ally occurs in the oblique case without a postposition. Sometimes it is said that the word or phrase representing the destination is followed by an implied postposition (k0) or a “ghostposition.” For example: malt~ har roz Skfll ke bad uske gharjdtd hi. ‘I go to his house every day after school,’ in which uske ghar is oblique. kapre pahannd/badalnd to get dressed; kapre utdrmi, to get undressed o kdm par jdnd, to go to work o phir: phir bhz', still, nevertheless; phir 5e, again o faumn: us kefaunm bad, right after that o bdr means ‘time’ as in kitni bar, ‘how many times.’ The general words for time are samay and vaqt. o roz: har roz, every day 0 hames’d ke liye, forever Exercise 5 Read aloud and translate the sentences. Note in each sentence whether the subject is male or female and what level of respect is used. 2.fina§a3mm§|afiamefirwmarafim,fifirmmmm {Iearmgwmarmmugnanafiwaamamgfiafimm aquafia-afiaafiwmmufimamawfimimarrcrafirgaa‘? efiamfimilamarfim??fiufiaarfiawil rogwfiamrgag amammm-wma?zamfimafifimé’lmmafi ma zafirtfimammiafirzfie‘rarmmi] mama-am mammmm—amma *Subject pronouns are often dropped, particularly when the subject is already clear from the context. 208 Unit3 Daily Life Exercise 6 Translate into Hindi. I drink coffee every morning. I go to class in the morning. I work in the evening. I go to the library every day. What do you usually do after school? I go home; I change clothes there. After that, I go to the gym. I exercise for one hour. After that I usually have something to eat (eat something). 5°9°NQSHEPP°NH H .0 Then I go back home and sleep. The following paragraphs were written by Indian primary school students, Sangeeta and Ajay, about their daily routines. Compare their routines and note the similarities and differences by filling out the Venn diagram. When finished, pair up with a partner and compare your results. As always, speak only in Hindi. Chapter 13 || My Daily Routinel 209 mfisa—cfigflmméfiwanmmafimfifiamammmil mafifififiafiafifirfifiwémammamafififimfi waaafigfifiafimmfimmqsmfiW§WWWWW mfilfimwmfimmfiafifimfimmmémfimm. Hammfimarafiafiril fifififia'a‘rarmfi figaammilmmémmfimmilmfimmm fianéfifiafiwmésmqymfimfifimmfiafififiaréfiw mglwsmfimasmmmgmammamfim mmiflfrfisfimmwfififlmmwmmmfim mfiwammgmmwmé Listen to the dialogue and answer the questions. mm mmawufi!wm%? Hm mmmmm’g‘? m trauma m #Wmfimfi m mm fififimil 13m? afrwwfifi? m #MWWEWI m @3121??me 11112?” #mmgm#*m€|mm-mwfiafim€| flfifiTwTEE-fifi’f? 210 Unit3 Daily Life m m fifiafirflamzfiril Wmfifimw mmfifimmfifi mamm’e‘? manna mafimfiméfimmmfiémmz sfim.mm?r| ml *3? W, ‘at this time.’ “111313-73 13f, ‘by bike.’ The postposition se is generally the postposition of choice with modes of transportation. a Sequence the following verbs in a written chronological narrative of what you do every day. For example, First I get up, then I bathe. After that I have breafiast... Use the phrases pahle, phir, and us ke bad to sequence the actions. When you are finished, repeat the exercise as a speaking drill. m,am,mmm,a§amlmwm,mammlm,aefim, mm,m Chapter 13 || My Daily Routinel 211 Interview a partner to determine his or her daily routine. Begin with the first thing your part— ner does in the morning and continue in chronological sequence. When describing your own routine, pause after each sentence to allow your partner to ask what you do next. W mgfil’lfirfifimmwmm ELWCIEFTfiBEEfifi amafiafimmfi’l’? ummafimgl Ems—{WWW affififimmfira Clock Time ...baje, ’at...o’clock’ When talking about one’s routine, it is also common to describe it in terms of specific clock times. One of the most common ways to state the time an action or event occurs is ...baje, ‘at...o’clocl<.’ w a? at 1:00 at as? at2z00 Ffi EST at 9:00 33f war a? 3'6?” {I Iget up at 7:00. if W a? HWY-fr {I Igo to sleep at 11:00. The following words can be used to state clock times in increments of 15 minutes: H13 sdrhe number plus one half; half past (e.g., sdrhe das, 10 1/2; 10:30) q‘lfi paune number minus one quarter; quarter to (e.g. paune das, 9 3A; 9:45) GET save? number plus one quarter; quarter past (6. g. save? das, 10 ‘A; 10:15) 212 Unit3 DailyLife The word sir/1e is not used with the number ek, ‘one,’ or do, ‘two.’ Instead there are specific words that are used for 'half past one’ and ‘half past two.’ $25 derh half past one (with baje); one and a half a? dhéz' half past two (with baje); two and a half 241? 6—5" as? at 6:30 ii are? a? as? 363T §| Iget up at 6:30. cm a? as? at 8:45 finfia’iafimwmil Igotoworkat8:45. $25 as? atl:30 Weeatlunchatlz30. Telling Time The preceding section covered how to tell the time at which an action occurs. The forms used to state the current time are similar. There are two forms that are used to tell time by the hour. 12$ aaT El ek bajfi hai used to say ‘It’s one o’clock.’ baje haz~ used to tell all other times. Examples: W 3311' It’s one o’clock aT HST It’s two o’clock. Elli? as? ’5‘] It’s three o’clock. CITE EST ’5‘] It’s five o’clock. ail—5' a? a It’s twelve o’clock. E The form bajd hai should be used for all times that have the number ‘one’ as their reference (12:45, 1:00, 1:15, 1:30). The form baje hm" should be used for all other numbers. mem mummy 36ng $313133?! WWW?! WWW?! flawmifi WWW?! There are many ways to ask the time in Hindi. A couple of the most common ways are: Wars}??? was? Vocabulary 3 Time—Related Expressions We? kab kitne baje derh dhéz‘ paune Chapter 13 My DailyRoutinel 213 It’s a quarter to one. It’s 12:45. It’s a quarter past one. It’s 1:15. It’s half past one. It’s 1:30. It’s a quarter to two. It’s 1:45. It’s a quarter past three. It’s 3: 15. It’s half past four. It’s 4:30. It’s a quarter to six. It’s 5:45. It’s half past twelve. It’s 12:30. What time is it? What time is it? when at what time half past one; one and a half half past two; two and a half quarter to; number minus a quarter 214 Unit3 Daily Life bajné (v. i.) to sound, resound, be struck (a bell) ...baj& hai It’s...o’clock (with times having ‘one’ as their reference) ...baje at...o’clock ...baje hat~ It’s...o’clock lagbhag, qarz'b, taqriban approximately quarter past; number plus a quarter half past; number plus one half Chapter 13 My Daily Routinel 215 E Write complete Hindi sentences stating what time it is using the following times: a. 4:00 b. 11:00 c. 1:00 d. 7:15 e. 7:45 f. 1:30 g. 1:45 h. 12:30 i. 12:45 j. 2:30 Take turns with a partner asking the time and responding in complete sentences. When re— sponding, use the following times: a. 5:00 b. 6:30 0. 8:45 (1. 11:30 6. 1:30 f. 2:00 g. 2:45 h. 3:45 i. 6:30 j. 7:15 At what time do you do the following activities? Write a complete Hindi sentence for each activity. get up bathe eat lunch return home sleep Interview a classmate to find out the time he or she usually does the activities below. When answering, speak in complete sentences without reading your responses from the previous activity. m,Efi/afimm/mwm,ma§rmm,mmm,m W agfifimfifimm umqtfimwfimil aafimfiafififirmm unifa‘ta'afifimél 216 Unit3 Daily Life Using Postpositions with Verbs Some of Hindi’s rules for marking direct and indirect objects. differ from those of English. Indirect Object The indirect object is the element of the sentence that is marked with ‘to’ in English, most typically with verbs of giving and speaking. In Hindi, the indirect object is marked with the postposition k0. 1’16” W 34??? EFT dilfiifll Give this book to Amar. 34m fl are are 3TH 6mm Don’t tell this to Asha. Sometimes ‘to’ is omitted from English sentences and the word order is rearranged. For exam— ple, the above sentences could also be phrased, Give Amar this book and Don’t tell Asha this. In Hindi, dropping the postposition k0 from the indirect object is not possible. Direct Object The direct object is the element of the sentence that the verb acts most directly upon. In Eng— lish, direct objects are not marked with any preposition. Here are some examples of direct objects in English sentences: I saw him. Open the book. I know her. John ate a banana. He saw me. Give these papers to him. In Hindi, any time the direct object is a specific human being, it must be marked with the postposition k0. MES-fl $7 Look at that man! We ’ 35f III-T all???” Don’t leave the kids here. a—TlT 3qu m aFlT GIVE-I Do you know Qasim? qZIIEIER WT m 143431? Ell Most people considerhi_m a fool. Chapter 13 MyDaily Routinel 217 If the direct object is not a human being, or is a nonspecific human being (e.g., send a servant), k0 is optional. The postposition k0 is also sometimes used with nonhuman direct objects to add emphasis or avoid grammatical ambiguity. 33 W13 $1 BEE-ff I Pick up that book. Verbs that Require Other Postpositions Many Hindi verbs require that a postposition other than k0 (most often se) be used to mark a specific element in the sentence. Verbs of this type should be memorized along with their accompanying postposition. Examples: X 13f WT to meet X; meet up with X, see X (socially) X fir 11m to ask X (a person) Xeamm totalktoX EMT 34W 311m 313??? m?) Do you see him often? Elma a can Ask Faisal. W 21?? ET "313% 3 EH? m Do you talk to Shruti every day? Vocabulary 4 Common Verbs . BERT kahné (v.t.) to say, call (by name) X 3 W X se kahnd to say to X W3?” charm? (v.t.) to leave; to drop off 31mm jdnnd (v.t.) to know 313T dame? (v.i.) to fear, be afraid X 3 W X se dame? to fear X, be afraid of X m pilami (v.t.) to serve (a beverage) to pukérnd (v.t.) to address as, call as pflchné (v.t.) to ask (someone, X se) 218 Unit3 DailyLife Common Verbs (cont‘d) X a 93m X 36 pachna to ask X 1m m fon karma (v.t.) to call (by phone) at?! EFF” bat karma (v.t.) to talk, converse X 3 51? WT X se bait karnc‘z to talk to X, converse with X W bale—ma (v.t.) to invite, call, summon WT manna (v.t.) to believe; to regard WT milnc‘z (v.i.) to meet; to see (socially) X 3' WET X se milnd to meet X; to see X socially Ell—HT [and (v.i.) to bring (also le and) at m le calnc'z (v.i.) to take with Si SHET lejc'mfi (v.i.) to take (someone/something somewhere) Additional Words 31mm, W Tat" axbdr, samdcfirpatr (m.) newspaper EFH kam less, fewer 33?? Q $3? kam se kam at least S‘l‘x’JT bhaiyé (bhayyd) (m.) brother 33771313 mezbén host W mehma'n guest Notes: o Similar to kam se kam, ‘at least,’ is zyddd se zyddd, ‘at most.’ o bhaiyd is a diminutive form of the word bhdi. - The words [and (le dnd), le jdnd, and le calmi parallel and, [61nd, and calmi. The verb hind means ‘to bring,’ or ‘to come bearing...’ In spoken English, the verb 'bring’ can be used both for movement toward the speaker and movement away from the speaker. For example: ‘When you come, bring the CD with you.’ and ‘When you leave, remember to bring (take) your suitcase with you.’ In Hindi, kind is only used for movement toward the speaker. The verb le ja'nd means ‘to take away,’ or ‘to go bear— ing...’ The verb le calnd is similar to le jdrtd but is used in contexts in which calm? would be more appropriate than jdmi, for example when the addressee is accompanying the speaker. Chapter 13 || My DailyRoutinel 219 Read aloud and translate into English. maimgwwbafiwfawmsfifilzmaéménfimmsfim ana‘aanilmafrmmméxfistmmfimwmmm. m§|s.mgnmafima?a.mwatmefifimmfilamt fiWnfimfiafimfiafifiammmfimfiméfismafi mglfiwmfimmmwfifimmma2°.fi3fia’m‘ifitfiaé mawmmawa E Translate the following sentences into Hindi. Look at that man. Look at this. How many times a year (“How many times in a year”) do you see him? Do you know her? He knows her; ask him. Call him (by phone). Tell him immediately. Read this book. It’s interesting. WNQ‘SJ‘PWN!‘ I know Jaswant but I don’t see (meet) him often. ...
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