Cognitive Psychology Exam for Ch. 9,10,12

Cognitive Psychology Exam for Ch. 9,10,12 - ExamIII(9,10,12...

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Exam III (9, 10, 12) Module 7 Basic Idea "Prior knowledge is the velcro to which people hook information" Semantic Knowledge: Category Definition group of items Semantic Knowledge: Concept definition a mental representation that corresponds to the knowledge of a category  Semantic Knowledge: How do we place objects into categories? -All instances of a concept share common properties-If an instance has ALL properties,  then it is a member-If NOT, then it is not-Example: grandfather= male + parent of a  parent Typicality Effect not all members are equally good members of a category Semantic Knowledge: Failure to specify _ features DEFINING  Probabilistic View concepts determined by similarity  Probabilistic View: Representation that includes features USUALLY true for instances of the concept  Probabilistic View: Classification into categories is determined by _ to that _ level of similarity; representation  Two types of Representation 1) Prototype2) Exemplar Explain Prototypes -"the average case"-summary representation including all the typical properties. a  UNITARY  representation-used to represent the concept and to classify new instances  Prototypes: What members share and what members vary on -members share FAMILY RESEMBLANCE (FR) (all share same set of properties)- members vary on  TYPICALITY (on how many typical properties they have)
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Evidence for prototypes  -LIST CATEGORY MEMBERS near prototype first and often (ex. "robin" before and  more often than "penguin")-RT faster saying is part of category for items near prototype  (ex. "robin is a bird" faster than "penguin is a bird")-PRIMING prototypical items are  more affected by priming (ex. "robin" affected more than "penguin")-LEARNING learn  new categories more rapidly if examples are prototypical (ex. "sparrows" and "robin"  faster than "penguin" and "ostrich") What do prototypes lack? -CONTEXT-SENSITIVITY: Suppose it's Thanksgiving time, "the bird is in the oven".  What is the bird?-CLEAR WAYS TO REPRESENT: Variable categories (What is the  prototype for games? Video games, board games, etc.?) Describe Exemplar -Representation consists of separate descriptions of some or all its examples/ NO  UNITARY description-Can use diff. info for diff. classifications-Can predict many  prototype-like effects-Can predict influences of frequency and variability Downsides of Exemplar -Requires lots of memory and time to search-People often have abstractions-THERE IS  MORE THAN SIMILARITY!
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