BIOL 1005 FINAL EXAMMM - BIOL 1005 FINAL EXAM BEFORE THE...

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BIOL 1005: FINAL EXAM BEFORE THE MIDTERM: HYPOTHESIS TESTING I: Science is… o Observing the world, watching and listening, observing and recording. o Science is curiosity in thoughtful action about the world and how it behaves. Scientific Method: is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments o Step 1: Observations First step for doing science. Ex: Maggots appear in meat. o Step 2: Models (Generalizations) This becomes an increasingly accurate idea of what is going on. Ex: Decaying mean produces maggots o Step 3: Predictive Statements (Hypotheses) These must be testable. Ex: Null- Maggots appearance has no correlation with the rotting mean. Alternative- decaying meat produces maggots. o Step 4: Tests (Experiments) This must be controlled and replicated Formulating Hypotheses o Before we design an experiment to test a model we need to formulate a NULL and an ALTERNATIVE hypothesis o The null and alternative hypotheses should cover ALL possible results that you may get at the end of you experiment. o Null Hypothesis: States that there will be NO difference in the outcome of your treatment and your control groups o Alternative Hypothesis: States there WILL be a difference between the outcome of your treatment and control groups Hypothesis vs. Prediction o Hypotheses will only state whether we will or will not see a difference between 2 groups o A PREDICTION states in what direction we will see that difference Predictions are more specific than hypotheses A prediction is a guess what might happen based on observation. Hypothesis and theory: What is the difference between these two concepts? o HYPOTHESIS: It is a prediction or explanation that has not been tested o THEORY: A prediction or explanation that has been tested. It is a strongly supported idea that has been tested repeatedly by many people, in many ways, and for a long time. Gravity, natural selection, etc. HYPOTHESIS TESTING II: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, GRAPHING, AND DATA ANALYSIS Experimental Design- Some Important Considerations: o Number of variables (e.g. treatment) to be manipulated: ONE!! The group in which the variable is manipulated is called the “ Experimental Group ” or “ Treatment Group Think about how you are going to measure this variable o Control Group: Standard to which we compare our results – so we can tell if the treatment has an effect Attempt to equalize all the external conditions o Replicates: Repetition increases the reliability and accuracy of your results Determine variability od results (descriptive statistics) Generally, more are better In lab – minimum of 3 replicates o Scale of measurements: What are you measuring?
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