CH 18 - Chapter 18 Systematics Seeking Order Amidst...

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Chapter 18 Systematics: Seeking Order Amidst Diversity
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18.1 How Are Organisms Named and Classified? The branch of biology that is concerned with naming & classifying organisms = taxonomy Established by the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Used a 2 part naming system for all organisms The two-part scientific name of an organism is formed from the genus and species Genus: group that includes a number of very closely related species Species: within a genus includes populations of organisms that can potentially interbreed under natural conditions
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The two-part scientific name of an organism is formed from the genus and species ( cont’d. ) The genus Sialia (bluebirds) includes 3 species
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Each 2-part scientific name is unique and recognized worldwide Scientific names are always underlined or italicized – The 1 st letter of the genus name is always CAPITALIZED – The 1 st letter of the species name is always lowercase The species name is always paired with genus name Humans = Homo sapiens Classification originated as a hierarchy of categories – Each species was grouped together on the basis of resemblance to other species – The categories form a nested hierarchy in which each level includes all the other levels below it
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The Linnaean classification system came to include eight major categories or taxonomic ranks DOMAIN Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Modern classification emphasizes patterns of evolutionary descent – Darwin’s work demonstrated that all life is related by a common ancestry – Biologists then realized that taxonomic categories should reflect evolutionary relationship –The more categories two organisms share, the closer they are related to each other
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Author Animation: Taxonomic Classification
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Modern classification emphasizes patterns of evolutionary descent ( cont’d. ) – Today, the process of classification focuses on reconstructing phylogeny , or evolutionary history Systematics
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  • Spring '08
  • pomarico
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