Module 3 Notes - ESC 1000 Chapter 2 Notes Exploring Earth...

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ESC 1000 Chapter 2 Notes Exploring Earth Science, 1e What-To-Know List Chapter 7: Deformation and Earthquakes 7.0 Deformation and Earthquakes Summarize the events that caused devastation in Indonesia in 2004. The world’s strongest earthquake in 40 years struck with a 9.1 magnitude The earthquake occurred beneath the ocean The tsunami increased the height 7.1 What Is Deformation and How Is It Expressed in Landscapes? Describe or illustrate the concept of stress. Force: a push or a pull that causes or tends to cause, change in the motion of a body. It is commonly expressed as the amount of acceleration experienced by a mass. Stress: The amount of force divided by the area where force is applied. Sketch and explain the three types of stress, providing examples of the types of structures each forms. Compression : When stress pushes in on rock, the stress is an inward direction. Result: causes rock to fracture and slip past one another - fault. Tension → : When stress is directed outward, pulling the rock. Result: tension forms fractures and if fluids are deposited, a vein is formed. ^^^ Shear vvv: As if stresses on the edges of a black were applied in opposite directions. Result: a fault is formed. Sketch or describe the three ways that a material can respond to stress. Displacement: A material may be moved from one place to another. A material can behave as a rigid object or can change shape as it moves. Rotation: Can tilt the volume of material or spin it horizontally. Rotation can be expressed by tilting, folding, or a partial spin of the material. Strain: Deforming internally or changing the size or shape by ductile or brittle deformation. Sketch and explain how crustal strength varies with depth. Temperature and pressure both decrease downward. The strength of the crust decreases rapidly downward. 7.2 How Are Fractures Expressed in Landscapes? Sketch and describe joints and faults. Joints : A fracture that form as simple cracks where the rock has been pulled apart by a small amount (Most common). Form under tensions where the rock is pulled apart. Faults: A fracture where rocks have slipped past one another. Can slip up and down, sideways, or at some other angle.
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Displaces the rocks on one side relative to the other side. What stresses form joints? Mostly due to burial, and tectonic forces - may push, pull, or shear the rocks. Stress builds up as rocks get warmer or cooler. Stress arise during uplift of buried rocks, causing rocks to fracture due to reduced pressure. *Unloading Joints: Form parallel to the surface and slice off thin sheets of rock. * Columnar Joints - when igneous rocks cool and contract into polygon shaped columns bounded by joints that meet at 120 degree angles.
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