Module 2A Notes - ESC 1000 Chapter 2 Notes Exploring Earth...

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ESC 1000 Chapter 2 Notes Exploring Earth Science, 1e What-To-Know List 2A - Chapter 5: Plate Tectonics 5.1 What Is Inside Earth? Sketch the major layers of Earth. \ Sketch and describe differences in thickness and composition between continental crust and oceanic crust *The primary factor controlling the elevation of a region is the thickness of the underlying crust. Oceanic crust is THINNER than continental crust and consists of denser rock than continental crust. As a result, regions underlain only by oceanic crust are well below sea level. Contrast lithosphere and asthenosphere → BOTH MAKE UP THE MANTLE Lithosphere = crust (rigid) and the uppermost part of the mantle (strong and solid) Asthenosphere = mantle directly beneath the lithospheric (weak zone, but hotter, allowing rock to flow) Sketch and discuss how the principle of isostasy can explain differences in regional elevation. Isostasy : The concept of different thicknesses of crust riding on the mantle Mountain belts have thick crustal roots → most of the change in crustal thickness occurs at depth and less near the surface Density of the rocks also influences regional elevations 5.2 What Are the Major Features of Earth? Identify on a world map the named continents and oceans. Mountains on the seafloor that create islands. These are seamounts if they do not reach sea level (Chains of islands are called island arcs).
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Mid-ocean ridges are broad and symmetrical ridges that cross the ocean basins (Deep ocean trenches would be darker in color). Cracks and steps cross the seafloor mostly at right angles to the mid-ocean ridges, called oceanic fracture zones. When continents continue outward from the shoreline under shallow seawater - continental shelves Broad, high regions - plateaus 5.3 Why Do Some Continents Have Matching Shapes? Describe observations Wegener used to support continental drift. The “cut and pate” fit Distribution of fossils several thousands kms apart by wide oceans (“mesosaurus”) Glacial deposits Discuss why the hypothesis was not widely accepted. Geoscientists working in the N hemisphere had not seen the S hemisphere data for themselves. Wegener could not describe how or why the continents moved (continental drift) List some discoveries about the seafloor that brought a renewed interest in the idea of continental drift. Magnetic data used to find enemy submarines during WWII, which revealed that the ocean floor has long submarine mountain belts. Oceanic crust was spreading apart at underwater mountain belts, carrying the continents apart (seafloor spreading). This all developed into the theory of plate tectonics. 5.4 Where Do Earthquakes and Volcanoes Occur? Show on a world relief map the major belts of earthquakes and volcanoes.
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Describe how the distribution of volcanoes corresponds to that of earthquakes.
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