Biology Final Study Guide - Biology Final Study Guide Cell...

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Biology Final Study Guide Cell Division: -two main stages: interphase and division - Interphase: preparing for division (G = gap) - G 1 : duplicates everything (organelles) - S: synthesis—duplicate DNA (20 chromosomes) - G 2 : produce microtubules via protein tubulin - Division: - prophase: chromosomes start to condense (homologous start pairing up) - metaphase: chromosomes (2 homologous) line up at center; microtubules/spindle fibers attached - anaphase: chromosomes are pulled apart to polar regions (draw) Kineticore: protein layer on centromere where spindle fibers attach - telophase: chromosomes reach poles, and cell can divide (thus maintaining ploidy level) -bacteria divide via binary fission -plants divide via formation of a cell plate called a phragmoplast -animals divide via cleavage (lava lamp) - ploidy: chromosome number - polyploidy: major cause of speciatem in plants -mutation drives speciatem -2n = diploid ; 1n = haploid -sperm & egg haploid; combine to make diploid (DNA segregation maintains diploid vs.
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