Biology Study Guide 2 - Biology Study Guide...

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Biology Study Guide 2 -Multiorganismal: made up of multiple entities -Endosymbiosis led to heterotrophs and eukaryotes -Symbiosis: living together -P-cells = soldiers in body that keep immune system in check -generalizations of cell theory: 1. all made of cells 2. the cell is smallest unit of life that has the properties of life 3. the continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells -largest cell = an egg -plant cell: 10-100 micrometers -human red blood cell: 9 micrometers -ecoli: 1-5 micrometers -DNA: 2 nm -HIV: 1 nm -cell division = growth -before puberty, only mitosis; after, meiosis and mitosis -humans made up of 200 different types of cells; we have billions of cells -fibers = protein -biomelin, papain = enzymes that tenderize meat -cell parts: - nucleus: organelle in eukaryotic cell that contains genetic info (DNA) - protoplasm (animal); protoplast (plant) living part of cell (excludes plasma membrane) - cytoplasm : content of cell excluding the nucleus - cytosol : content of cell excluding organelles - organelle : small membrane enclosed organ found in eukaryotic cells - plasma membrane : made of lipids, water can’t get in; phospholipid bylayer that surrounds the cell; separates living from nonliving part of cell (for animal, it’s the boundary) - lipid bi-layer : surrounds cells and inhibits passage of water; has openings that allow things in (not out) called protein channels (certain enzymes open and close) - homeostasis : balance; opens up channel to maintain equilibrium depending on concentration gradient - endoplasmic reticulum : place where protein and lipids are made (synthesized) - golgi apparatus : part of cell where protein and lipids are sorted - vesicles
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