Biology Vocabulary - Biology Vocabulary Chapter One...

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Biology Vocabulary Chapter One Emergent properties: new properties that arise in each step due to the organization and interactions of parts as complexity increases Systems biology: models the behavior of whole systems based on the interactions of its parts Biosphere: wherever life exists Communities: set of populations inhabiting a particular area Populations: all individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area Organelles: various functional components present in cells Eukaryotic cell: cells of everything but bacteria and archaea (plants and animals); is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles Nucleus: largest organelle; contains DNA in eukaryotic cells Cytoplasm: entire region between nucleus and outer membrane of the cell Prokaryotic cell: cells of bacteria and archaea (mostly single cell and microscopic; don’t have membrane enclosed organelles or a nucleus) DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid) have almost all genetic material; substance of genes Nucleotides: abbreviated A, T, C, G; how DNA encodes info RNA: intermediary for DNA’s function Gene expression: info in the gene directs production of the cellular product Genome: entire “library” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits Negative feedback: accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process Positive feedback: end product speeds up its own production Eukarya: domain including: Plantae, Fungi (absorb nutrients from surroundings), and Animalia Chapter Two Essential elements: those an organism needs to be healthy and reproduce Trace elements: needed in minute quantities Dalton: same as amu Radioactive isotope: where nucleus decays spontaneously Energy: the capacity to cause change Van der Waals interactions: when electrons accumulate in a nonpolar molecule and cause attraction Chapter Three Cohesion: when a substance is held together (in the case of water, hydrogen bonds) Adhesion: the clinging of one substance to another Specific heat: the amount of heat that must be absorbed/lost by 1 g of the substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius Heat of vaporization: heat a liquid needs for 1 g of it to become a gas
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Hydration shell: when a substance is dissolved in water, the water coats the individual atoms separately from the compound Hydrophilic: any substance that has an affinity for water Colloid: a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid Hydrophobic: nonionic and nonpolar substances that seem to repel water Hydronium ion: H 3 O + pH: defined by—pH = -log 10 (H + ) Buffer: minimizes changes in the concentrations of H + and OH - in a solution Chapter Four Hydrocarbons: organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Functional groups: chemical groups that directly and chemically affect molecular function ATP: adenosine triphosphate Chapter Five Polymer: a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks (monomers) linked by covalent bonds Monomers: repeating units that serve as building blocks of a polymer Dehydration reaction:
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