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independence_in_the_global_south-2 - Independence and...

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Independence and Development in the Global South AP World History Chapter 23
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The Global South “The Global South” = formerly labeled “third-world countries” during the Cold War  now often referred to as “developing nations” “Decolonization” = term for the Global South’s independence from European rule
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The Global South Challenges facing the Global South after decolonization: The legacies of empire Deep divisions of language, ethnicity, religion, and class Rapidly growing populations Competing demands of the capitalist West and the communist East Developing economies, stable politics, and coherent nations all at the same time
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The End of Empire in World History Dissolution of empires = nothing new Think about the end of older empires  Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, etc. What’s different about the end of these empires? Mobilization of the masses within the colonies around a nationalist ideology Creation of a large number of independent nation-states following the empire’s breakdown  each claiming an equal place in the world Kwame Nkrumah after leaving prison in 1951 Led Ghana to national independence in 1957
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Nation-States Created
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Explaining African and Asian Independence The “Contradictions” Explanation = fundamental contradictions existed within the entire colonial enterprise that made its demise inevitable Views Held by European Rulers What’s Happening in their Colonies Christianity and material progress Racism, exploitation, and poverty Increasingly democratic values Rule by dictatorships National self-determination Denied any opportunities to express their own national character
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Explaining African and Asian Independence International circumstances that led to the end of these empires: Both world wars = weakened Europe Both world wars = discredited any sense of European moral superiority U.S. and Soviet Union = new global superpowers = opposed the older European colonial empires United Nations = platform from which nations could express anticolonial views
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Explaining African and Asian Independence: Economic and Social Circumstances By the mid-20 th century = 2 nd and 3 rd generation Western- educated elites (mostly male) had arisen throughout the colonial world Familiar with European culture and aware of the gaps between its values and its practices Didn’t see colonial rule as a vehicle for their peoples’ progress Increasingly insisted on independence
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Explaining African and Asian Independence: Economic and Social Circumstances Other groups that believed independence held promise: Veterans of the world wars Young people with some education but no job opportunities Urban workers = aware of their exploitation Small-scale traders = resentful of European privileges Rural dwellers = lost land or suffered from forced labor Poor and insecure newcomers to the cities Decolonization of India
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  • Spring '16
  • Ms. Stephens
  • Apwh, Ch 23, Strayer, Mrs Stephens, African National Congress, British Raj, Indian independence movement

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