MindoverMatterMidterm1 - Neuroanatomy Also study anatomy...

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Neuroanatomy Also study anatomy pictures/MRI/Chandler powerpoint notes The brain’s primary functions are to create a sensory reality by receiving inputting information via afferent nerves, integrating it (combining information received from different nerves or sensory locations and determining from which location the output information should be extended/to what amplitude it should be extended/to which region it should be extended), and outputting it via efferent nerves. The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system represents every nerve present throughout the body, including the spinal nerves and cranial nerves extending from the spinal cord and brain respectively, not including the brain and the spinal cord. The somatic nervous system regulates the sensory and motor systems and governs voluntary movement. The autonomic nervous system governs involuntary functions such as heartbeat, respiration, digestive processes, and blood vessel contractions. Anterior/posterior refers to towards the facial region/back of the head, medial/lateral refers to the middle/towards the side, dorsal/ventral refers to the top of the head and towards the back for the spinal cord/towards the bottom of the brain or towards the stomach for the spinal cord. Superior is synonymous with dorsal and inferior is synonymous with ventral. Ipislateral refers to “on the same side”, contralateral refers to “on different sides”. Proximal/distal mean closer to the point of attachment, or the defined origin/farther from the point of attachment or defined origin. A frontal-coronal slice is a cross-section as seen from the front of the brain. It is perpendicular to the sagittal cut, which runs parallel to the length of the skull. The midsagittal cut refers to the length-wise cross-section that is taken in the middle of the brain, evenly splitting the left and right hemispheres at the corpus callosum, the brain region linking the two hemispheres. A horizontal cut is a “flat” cross section of the brain, as seen from top of head. The forebrain (prosencephalon) is in the anterior region of the brain, and it is composed of the telencephalon and the diencephalon, both embryonic forebrain divisions. The telencephalon, which is located in the anterior portion of the forebrain, develops into the cerebral cortex, the limbic system, and the basal ganglia. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of gray matter that surrounds the inner white matter. It is characterized by gyri, which increase surface area for improved processing power, and sulci, which are the grooves that separate the gyri. The telencephalon further develops into the limbic system, which is composed of the hippocampus, which is critical for memory, the septum, and the amygdala, which regulates drives, base emotions, memory, and motivation. Broadly, the limbic system is critical for emotion, memory, and motivation/drives. Malfunction of the limbic system can result in schizophrenia. The basal
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