Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Classical Conditioning a type of...

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Chapter 5: Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another -passive Extinction: presenting the CS without the US the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response Spontaneous Recovery: the reappearance of a conditioned response after its apparent extinction Higher Order Conditioning: conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimulus are linked together to form a series of signals Generalization: stimuli that are similar and are reacted to in the same way US: banging of the pipe UR: fear of the noise CS: rat CR: fear of the rat US: food UR: salivation to food CS: bell CR: salivation to bell Learned Taste Aversion: the intense dislike and or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort Reinforcement: increase a behavior Primary Reinforcer: any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such as hunger, thirst or touch Secondary Reinforcer: praise, good grades, awards Positive Reinforcement: any pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response and increases the probability of that response to be repeated -cookies -rats press lever to obtain food Negative Reinforcement: termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, removing something bad, increase the occurrance of a behavior -rats press lever to turn off buzzer Punishment: decrease a behavior Positive Punishment: a decrease in behavior after the added consequence - rat stops pressing lever with buzzing Negative Punishment: a decrease in behavior after a removed consequence -rat stops pressing lever when doing so causes food to disappear Learned Helplessness: a passive resignation to aversive conditions that is learned through repeated exposure to in escapable or unavoidable aversive events
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Operant Conditioning: a type of learning in which the consequence of behavior are manipulated so as to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response -trial and error learning Schedules of reinforcement: Time Fixed Interval: test Variable Interval: pop quiz Variable Fixed Ratio: free coffee after 10 coffees
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