Chapter 10 Outline - Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of...

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Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State I. Growing Pains A. In 1789, the new U.S. Constitution was launched, and the population was doubling every 20 years. i. America’s population was still 90% rural, with 5% living west of the Appalachians. ii. Vermont became the 14th state in 1791, and Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio (states where trans-Appalachian overflow was concentrated) became states soon after. iii. Visitors looked down upon the crude, rough pioneers, and these western people were restive and dubiously loyal at best. B. In the twelve years after American independence, laws had been broken and a constitution had been completely scrapped and replaced with a new one, a government that left much to be desired. C. America was also heavily in debt, and paper money was worthless, but meanwhile, restless monarchs watched to see if the U.S. could succeed in setting up a republic while facing such overwhelming odds. II. Washington for President A. At 6’2”, 175 pounds, with broad and sloping shoulders, a strongly pointed chin and pockmarks from smallpox, George Washington was an imposing figure, which helped in his getting unanimously elected as president by the Electoral College in 1789. B. His long journey from Mt. Vernon to New York (capital at the time) was a triumphant procession filled with cheering crowds and roaring festivities, and he took his oath of office on April 30, 1789, on a balcony overlooking Wall Street. C. Washington established a diverse cabinet (which was not necessary Constitutional). i. Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson ii. Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton iii. Secretary of War: Henry Knox III. The Bill of Rights A. Many states had ratified the Constitution on the condition that there would be a Bill of Rights, and many Anti-Federalists had criticized the Constitution for its lack of a Bill. B. The necessary number of states adopted the Bill of Rights in 1791. C. Bill of Rights i. Amendment I: Freedom of religion, speech or press, assembly, and petition. ii. Amendment II: Right to bear arms (for militia). iii. Amendment III: Soldiers can’t be housed in civilian homes during peacetime. iv. Amendment IV: No unreasonable searches; all searches require warrants. v. Amendment V: Right to refuse to speak during a civil trial; No Double Jeopardy. vi. Amendment VI: Right to a speedy and public trial. vii. Amendment VII: Right to trial by jury when the sum exceeds $20. viii. Amendment VIII: No excessive bails and/or fines.
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ix. Amendment IX: Other rights not enumerated are also in effect. (“People’s Rights” Amendment) x. Amendment X: Unlisted powers belong to the state. (“States’ Rights” Amendment) D. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created effective federal courts. E. John Jay became the first Chief Justice of the United States IV. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit A. Born in the British West Indies, Alexander Hamilton’s loyalty to the U.S. was often questioned, even though he claimed he loved his adopted country more than his native country.
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