Chapter 5 Outline - Chapter 5 Colonial Society on the Eve...

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Chapter 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution I. Conquest by the Cradle 1. By 1775, Great Britain ruled 32 colonies in North America. o Only 13 of them revolted (the ones in what’s today the U.S.). o Canada and Jamaica were wealthier than the “original 13.” o All of them were growing by leaps and bounds. 2. By 1775, the population numbered 2.5 million people; half of them were black (due to natural fertility rather than coming from Europe) 3. The average age was 16 years old (due mainly to having several children). 4. The colonists were doubling their numbers every 25 years. This lead to a shift in political power between colonies and Britain. 5. Most of the population (95%) was densely cooped up east of the Alleghenies, though by 1775, some had slowly trickled into Tennessee and Kentucky. 6. 5 Population: Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Maryland o 4 Communities: Philly, New York, Boston, Charleston 7. About 90% of the people lived in rural areas and were therefore farmers. II. A Mingling of the Races 1. Colonial America, though mostly English, had other races as well. 2. Germans accounted for about 6% of the population, or about 150,000 people by 1775. Fleeing religious persecution, economic oppression, and the ravages of war, they had flocked to America and settled in Pennsylvania. o Most were Protestant (primarily Lutheran) and were called the Pennsylvania Dutch ” (a corruption of Deutsch which means German). o 1/3 of the colony’s population; signs were in German and English o Lived in back country of Pennsylvania o No loyalty to British crown and clung to German language 3. The Scots-Irish (Scotts Lowlanders) o 7% of the population (175,000 people) o Important non-English group but they spoke English o Over many decades, they had been transplanted to Northern Ireland, but they had not found a home there (the already existing Irish Catholics vs. Scottish Presbyterianism rivalry). o Many of the Scots-Irish reached America and became squatters, quarreling with both Indians and white landowners. o They seemed to try to move as far from Britain as possible, trickling down to Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. o By 1750s, a chain of Scots-Irish settlements lay scattered along the “great wagon road,” from the east Appalachian foothills from Penns to Georgia o No loyalty to British government o In 1764, the Scots-Irish led the armed march of the Paxton Boys.
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a. The Paxtons led a march on Philadelphia to protest the Quaker’s peaceful treatment of the Indians. b. They later started the North Carolina Regulator movement in the hills and mountains of the colony, aimed against domination by eastern powers in the colony. c. They were known to be very hotheaded and independent minded. d. Many eventually became American revolutionists.
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