Chapter 7 Outline - Chapter 7 I The Deep Roots of...

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Chapter 7 I. The Deep Roots of Revolution 1. In a broad sense, the American Revolution began when the first colonists set foot on America. 2. The war may have lasted for eight years, but a sense of independence had already begun to develop because London was over 3,000 miles away. i. Sailing across the Atlantic in a ship often took 6 to 8 weeks. ii. Survivors felt physically and spiritually separated from Europe. iii. Colonists in America, without influence from superiors, felt that they were fundamentally different from England, and more independent. iv. Many began to think of themselves as Americans, and that they were on the cutting edge of the British empire. II. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances 1. Of the 13 original colonies, the British government formally planted only Georgia. The rest were started by companies, religious groups, land speculators, etc.… 2. The British embraced a theory that justified their control of the colonies called mercantilism : i. A country’s economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. ii. To amass gold and silver, a country had to export more than it imported (it had to obtain a favorable balance of trade). iii. Countries with colonies were at an advantage, because the colonies could supply the mother country with raw materials, wealth, supplies, a market for selling manufactured goods etc.… iv. For America, that meant giving Britain all the ships, ships’ stores, sailors, and trade that they needed and wanted. v. Also, they had to grow tobacco and sugar for England that Brits would otherwise have to buy from other countries. 3. England’s policy of mercantilism severely handcuffed American trade. i. The Navigation Laws were the most infamous of the laws to enforce mercantilism. a. The first of these was enacted in 1650, and was aimed at rival Dutch shippers who were elbowing their way into the American shipping. b. The Navigation Laws restricted commerce from the colonies to England (and back) to only English ships, and none other. c. Other laws stated that European goods consigned to America had to land first in England, where custom duties could be collected.
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d. Also, some products, “ enumerated goods ,” could only be shipped to England. e. Settlers were even restricted in what they could manufacture at home; they couldn’t make woolen cloth and beaver hats to export (though, they could make them for themselves). f. Americans had no currency, but they were constantly buying things from Britain, so that gold and silver was constantly draining out of America, forcing some to even trade and barter. Eventually, the colonists were forced to print paper money, which depreciated. g. Colonial laws could be voided by the Privy Council , though this privilege was used sparingly (469 times out of 8,563 laws). Still, colonists were infuriated by its use.
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