Chapter 6 Outline - Chapter 6 Duel for North America I...

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Chapter 6: Duel for North America I. France Finds a Foothold in Canada 1. Like England and Holland, France was a latecomer in the race for colonies. i. It was convulsed in the 1500s by foreign wars and domestic strife. ii. In 1572, on St. Bartholomew’s day, over ten thousand Huguenots were killed in cold blood. iii. In 1598, the Edict of Nantes was issued, allowing limited toleration to the French Huguenots France become the most feared nation 2. When King Louis XIV became king, he took an interest in overseas colonies. i. In 1608, France established Quebec, overlooking the St. Lawrence River. 3. Samuel de Champlain , an intrepid soldier and explorer, became known as the “Father of New France.” i. He entered into friendly relations with the neighboring Huron Indians and helped them defeat the Iroquois. ii. The Iroquois, however, did hamper French efforts into the Ohio Valley later. 4. The government of New France (Canada) fell under the direct control of the king after various commercial companies had faltered. The royal regime was autocratic: no representative assemblies, no right to trial. 5. Unlike English colonists, French colonists didn’t immigrate to North America by hordes. The peasants were too poor, and the Huguenots weren’t allowed to leave. The government favored Caribbean island colonies, rick in sugar and rum, over the wilderness of Canada. II. New France Fans Out 1. New France ’s (Canada) one valuable resource was the beaver. 2. Beaver hunters were known as the coureurs de bois (runners of the woods) and littered the land with place names, including Baton Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (high land), Des Moines (some monks) and Grand Teton (big breasts). 3. The French voyageurs also recruited Indians to hunt for beaver as well, but the white man’s diseases decimated Indians and their alcohol debauched Indians. The beaver population was heavily extinguished. 4. French Catholic missionaries zealously tried to convert Indians. 5. To thwart English settlers from pushing into the Ohio Valley, Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit (“city of straits”) in 1701. 6. Robert de LaSalle, to halt Spanish expansion into the area near the Gulf of Mexico, founded Louisiana, in 1682. i. Three years later, he tried to fulfill his dreams by returning, but instead landed in Spanish Texas and was murdered by his mutinous men in 1687.
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7. The fertile Illinois country, where the French established forts and trading posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes, became the garden of France’s North American Empire. III. The Clash of Empires 1. King William’s War and Queen Anne’s War i. The English colonists fought the French coureurs de bois and their Indian allies. a. Neither side considered America important enough to waste real troops on = primitive guerilla warfare.
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