Lect_33_post - Lecture 33 Temperature Thermometers Thermal...

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Lecture 33 Temperature. Thermometers. Thermal expansion.
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https://youtu.be/Q3oltpVa9fs
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Matter is very complex A simple cup of coffee contains ~ 10 23 atoms Numerically impossible to follow trajectory of each atom, use Newton s laws for force, acceleration etc.. Two options 1. Statistical : probability distribution of molecule velocities 2. Macroscopic : a few variables (temperature, pressure, volume…) characterize the bulk properties of matter These variables are called state variables.
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Temperature and thermal equilibrium Temperature ~ average kinetic energy of atoms Reaching equilibrium (same T ) requires transfer of energy This energy in transit is called heat Q . Example: Molecules in coffee transfer energy to the air molecules. Eventually all coffee molecules have the same average kinetic energy as the molecules of air in this room Two pieces of matter in thermal contact exchange energy until their temperatures (T ) are the same (0th law of thermodynamics)
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ACT: Temperature When a series of blocks are connected thermally, heat starts to flow between the blocks as shown. What does this tell us about relative temperatures of the blocks? 1 2 3 4 Q 12 Q 23 Q 34 A. T 1 = T 2 = T 3 = T 4 B. T 1 > T 2 > T 3 > T 4 C. T 1 < T 2 < T 3 < T 4 This is how the sequence is established empirically.
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Temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit Celsius (formerly Centigrade) Based on the boiling and freezing points of water.
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